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<p>Juan Manuel Fangio 24 June 1911 &ndash; 17 July 1995), nicknamed El Chueco ("the bowlegged one", also commonly translated as "bandy legged") or El Maestro ("The Master"), was a racing car driver from Argentina, who dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers' Championship five times. From childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8. In 1940, he competed with Chevrolet, winning the Grand Prix International Championship and devoted his time to the Argentine Turismo Carretera becoming its champion, a title he successfully defended a year later. Fangio then competed in Europe between 1947 to 1949 where he achieved further success. He won the World Championship of Drivers five times&mdash;a record which stood for 46 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher&mdash;with four different teams (Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Maserati), a feat that has not been repeated. A member of the Formula 1 Hall of Fame, he is regarded by many as one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time and holds the highest winning percentage in Formula One - 46.15% - winning 24 of 52 Formula One races he entered. Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career&mdash;the most of any driver. After retirement, Fangio presided as the honorary president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987, a year after the inauguration of his museum, until his death in 1995. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world and various activities were held on the occasion of his birthday. Fangio's grandfather Giuseppe Fangio emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce within three years by cutting and burning tree branches to transform them into charcoal fuel. His father Loreto, emigrated to Argentina from the small, central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino. His mother Herminia D&eacute;rano was from Tornareccio. Both parents are from the Chieti province, of the Abruzzo region and married on 24 October 1903. They lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born on San Juan's day 1911 at 12:10 a.m. in Balcarce, a small city in southern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. His birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce.He was the fourth of six children. In his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No. 4 of Balcarce, Calle 13 before transferring to School No. 1 and 18 Uriburu Av. When Fangio was 13, he dropped out of school and worked as an assistant mechanic. When he was 16, he started out riding as a mechanic for his employer's customers. Fangio also developed pneumonia which almost proved fatal.This developed after a football game where Fangio had been hard at running and the effects caused a sharp pain in his chest. He was bed-ridden for two months and cared for by his mother After recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21. In 1932, he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires. His driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer to appoint Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination. He returned to Balcarce where he aimed to further his football career. Fangio along with his friend Jos&eacute; Duffard received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their team-mates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangio's hobby of building his own car and his parents donated a part of a small section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. Early racing career 1950 Simca Gordini T15s, as raced, and retired, at the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans by Jos&eacute; Froil&aacute;n Gonz&aacute;lez and Juan Manuel Fangio He began his racing career in Argentina in 1934, driving a 1929 Ford Model A which he had rebuilt. During his time racing in Argentina, he drove Chevrolet cars and was Argentine National Champion in 1940 and 1941.He first came to Europe to race in 1948, funded by the Argentine Automobile Club and the Argentine government. In the Tourism Highway category, Fangio participated in his first race between 18 October to 30 October 1938 as the co-pilot of Luis Finocchietti. Despite not winning Argentine Road Grand Prix, Fangio drove most of the way and qualified in seventh place. In November of that year, the competition called the "400 km. of Tres Arroyos "in which he enrolled, was suspended due to a fatal accident. In 1939, the circuit was in Forest, conforming well his last involvement with a Ford V8. With Hector Tieri as accompanist, in that year led a Chevrolet in Turismo Carretera, competing for the Argentine Grand Prix. Suspended by a strong rain, resumed in Cordoba, where he managed their first victory, winning the fourth stage from Catamarca to San Juan. On October, after 9500 km. competition in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, won his first race in Turismo Carretera, winning the Grand Prix International North. He qualified TC Argentine Champion, the first ever driving a Chevrolet. In 1941 beat Oscar G&aacute;lvez in the Grand Prix Get&uacute;lio Vargas in Brazil. For the second time, was crowned champion of Argentine TC. In 1942 the pilot ended South Grand Prix in tenth place in accordance with the general classification. In April won the race "Mar y Sierras" and had to suspend the mechanical activity due to the start of World War II. In 1946, after a brief period of inactivity, returned to racing with two races in Mor&oacute;n and Tandil driving a Ford T. In February 1947, competed at National Mechanics (MN) in the circuit Retirement and 1 March started the race for Rosario City Award. Subsequently, triumphed in the circuit 'Double Back Window' Race. Formula One racing This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011) Fangio at the 1954 German Grand Prix Fangio at the 1957 Argentine Grand Prix Overview Fangio, unlike later Formula One drivers, started his racing career at a mature age and was the oldest driver in many of his races. During his career, drivers raced with almost no protective equipment on circuits with no safety features. Fangio had no compunction about leaving a team, even after a successful year or even during a season, if he thought he would have a better chance with a better car. As was then common, several of his race results were shared with team mates after he took over their car during races when his own had technical problems. His rivals included Alberto Ascari, Giuseppe Farina and Stirling Moss. Throughout his career, Fangio was backed by funding from the Argentine government of Juan Peron. World championship successes Fangio's first entry into Grand Prix racing came in the 1948 French Grand Prix at Reims, where he started his Simca Gordini from 11th on the grid but retired. He did not drive in F1 again until the following year at Sanremo, but having upgraded to a Maserati 4CLT/48 sponsored by the Automobile Club of Argentina he dominated the event, winning both heats to take the aggregate win by almost a minute over Prince Bira. Fangio entered a further six Grand Prix races in 1949, winning four of them against top-level opposition. For the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950 Fangio was taken on by the Alfa Romeo team alongside Farina and Luigi Fagioli. With competitive racing machinery following the Second World War still in short supply, the pre-war Alfettas proved dominant. Fangio won each of the three races he finished, but Farina's three wins and a fourth place allowed him to take the title. In 1950s non-championship races Fangio took a further four wins and two seconds from eight starts. Fangio won three more championship races for Alfa in 1951 in the Swiss, French and Spanish Grands Prix, and with the improved Ferraris taking points off his team mates, Fangio took the title in the final race, six points ahead of Ascari. With the 1952 World Championship being run to Formula Two specifications, Alfa Romeo were unable to use their supercharged Alfettas and withdrew. As a result the defending champion found himself without a car for the first race of the championship and remained absent from F1 until June, when he drove the British BRM V16 in non-championship F1 races at Albi and Dundrod. Fangio had agreed to drive for Maserati in a non-championship race at Monza the day after the Dundrod race, but having missed a connecting flight he decided to drive through the night from Paris, arriving half an hour before the start. Badly fatigued, Fangio started the race from the back of the grid but lost control on the second lap, crashed into a grass bank, and was thrown out of the car as it flipped end over end. He was taken to hospital with multiple injuries, the most serious being a broken neck, and spent the rest of 1952 recovering in Argentina. In Europe, and back to full racing fitness in 1953, Fangio rejoined Maserati for the championship season, and against the dominant Ferraris led by Ascari he took a lucky win at Monza. Fangio qualified second with Bonetto seventh, and Fangio set fastest lap on his way to a 1.4-second victory over Nino Farina while Bonetto retired out of fuel. Along with that win, Fangio secured three second places to finish second in the Championship, and also came third first time out in the Targa Florio. He ended 1953 in a Lancia D24 winning the Carrera Panamericana in record time. In 1954 Fangio raced for Maserati until Mercedes-Benz entered competition in mid-season. Winning eight out of twelve races (six out of eight in the championship) in that year, he continued to race with Mercedes&mdash;driving the W196 Monoposto&mdash;in 1955 in a team that included Stirling Moss. For 1955, Fangio subjected himself to training programme which was strenuous in an effort to keep up his fitness levels high which was comparable to his younger rivals. At the end of the second successful season (which was overshadowed by the 1955 Le Mans disaster in which more than 80 spectators were killed, an accident which happened right in front of and nearly killed him) Mercedes withdrew from racing and after 4 attempts, Fangio never raced at Le Mans again. In 1956 Fangio moved to Ferrari to win his fourth title. Enzo Ferrari and Fangio did not have a very warm relationship, despite their shared success. Fangio took over his team-mate's cars after he suffered mechanical problems in three races, the Argentine, Monaco and Italian Grands Prix. In each case the points were shared between the two drivers. At the season-ending Italian Grand Prix, Fangio's Ferrari team mate Peter Collins, who was in a position to win the World Championship with just 15 laps to go, handed over his car to Fangio. They shared the six points won for second place, giving Fangio the World title. "I have never driven that quickly before in my life and I don't think I will ever be able to do it again." &mdash;Fangio after the 1957 German Grand Prix In 1957 Fangio returned to Maserati, who were still using the same iconic 250F which Fangio had driven at the start of 1954. Fangio started the season with a hat-trick of wins in Argentina, Monaco and France, before retiring with engine problems in Britain. At the next race, the German Grand Prix at the N&uuml;rburgring circuit, Fangio needed to extend his lead by six points to claim the title with two races to spare. From pole position Fangio dropped to third behind the Ferraris of Hawthorn and Collins but managed to get past both by the end of the third lap. Fangio had started with half-full tanks since he expected that he would need new tyres half-way through the race. In the event Fangio pitted on lap 13 with a 30-second lead, but a disastrous stop left him back in third place and 50 seconds behind Collins and Hawthorn. Fangio came into his own, setting one fastest lap after another, culminating in a record-breaking time on lap 20 a full eleven seconds faster than the best the Ferraris could do. On the penultimate lap Fangio got back past both Collins and Hawthorn, and held on to take the win by just over three seconds. With Musso finishing down in fourth place, Fangio claimed his fifth title. This performance is often regarded as the greatest drive in Formula One history, and it was to be Fangio's last win. After his series of consecutive championships he retired in 1958, following the French Grand Prix. Such was the respect for Fangio, that during that final race, race leader Hawthorn had lapped Fangio and as Hawthorn was about to cross the line, he braked and allowed Fangio through so he could complete the 50-lap distance in his final race. He would cross the line over two minutes down on Hawthorn. He won 24 World Championship Grands Prix from 52 entries &ndash; a winning percentage of 46.15%, the best in the sport's history (Alberto Ascari, who is in second, holds a percentage of 40.63%). Kidnapping The Batista Dictatorship of Cuba established the non-Formula One Cuban Grand Prix in 1957. Fangio won the 1957 event, and had set fastest times during practice for the 1958 race. On 23 February 1958, two unmasked gunmen of Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement entered the Hotel Lincoln in Havana and kidnapped Fangio at gunpoint.[20] Local police set up roadblocks at intersections, and guards were assigned to private and commercial airports and to all competing drivers. Fangio was taken to three separate houses. His captors allowed him to listen to the race via radio, bringing a television for him to witness reports of a disastrous crash after the race concluded. In the third house, Fangio was allowed his own bedroom but became convinced that a guard was standing outside of the bedroom door at all hours. The captors talked about their revolutionary programme which Fangio had not wished to speak about as he did not have an interest in politics.Fangio was released after 29 hours and he remained a good friend of his captors afterwards.[citation needed] The captors motives were to force the cancellation of the race in an attempt to embarrass the Batista regime. After Fangio was released, many Cubans were convinced that Batista was losing his power because he failed to track the captors down.The Cuban Revolution concluded in January 1959, canceling the 1959 Cuban Grand Prix. The Fangio kidnapping was dramatized in a 1999 Argentine film directed by Alberto Lecchi, Operaci&oacute;n Fangio. Later life and death Juan Manuel Fangio driving a Mercedes-Benz W196 in the 1986 Oldtimer Grand Prix at the N&uuml;rburgring Fangio attended the 1958 Indianapolis 500 and was offered $20,000 in an attempt to qualify in a Kurtis-Offy run by car owner George Walther, Jr. Fangio had previously attended the 500 in 1948 which expressed his interest in competing the race. However he was unable to qualify and Walther allowed for Fangio to stand aside before a contract with British Petroleum came to light who had not wanted another driver to take over Fangio's position. During the rest of his life after retiring from racing Fangio sold Mercedes-Benz cars, often driving his former racing cars in demonstration laps. Even before he joined the Mercedes Formula One team, in the mid-1950s, Fangio had acquired the Argentine Mercedes concession. He was appointed President of Mercedes-Benz Argentina in 1974, and its Honorary President for Life in 1987. At the beginning of the 1980s Fangio underwent successful bypass surgery to correct a heart condition.He had also been suffering from kidney failure for some time before his death. In 1980 Konex Foundation granted him the Diamond Konex Award as the best Sportman of the decade in Argentina. Following his retirement, Fangio was active in assembling automotive memorabilia associated with his racing career. This led to the creation of the Museo Juan Manuel Fangio, which opened in Balcarce in 1986. Fangio was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1990. He returned to the spotlight in 1994, when he publicly opposed a new Province of Buenos Aires law denying driving licences to those over 80 (which included Fangio). Denied a renewal of his card, Fangio reportedly challenged Traffic Bureau personnel to a race between Buenos Aires and seaside Mar del Plata (a 400 km (250 mi) distance) in two hours or less, following which an exception was made for the five-time champion. In 1990, Fangio met the three-time world champion, Ayrton Senna, who had genuinely felt the encounter had reflected the mutual affection for both drivers. Juan Manuel Fangio died in Buenos Aires in 1995, at the age of 84; he was buried in his home town of Balcarce. His pall-bearers were his younger brother Ruben Renato ("Toto"), Moss, compatriot racers Jos&eacute; Froil&aacute;n Gonz&aacute;lez and Carlos Reutemann, Jackie Stewart and the president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina. Private life In the early 1950s, Fangio was involved in a road accident when he was forced to swerve to avoid an oncoming truck. The car, a Lancia Aurelia GT clipped a pole, spinning twice and threw Fangio out, which led him to sustain grazed elbows. One passenger stated the incident was the first time Fangio had been so terrified since the Korean War. Fangio was never married, but was involved in a romantic relationship with Andrea Buerret whom he broke up with in 1960. They had a son named Oscar Cacho Espinosa who was acknowledged as the unrecognised son of Fangio in 2000. His nephew, Juan Manuel Fangio II, is also a successful racing driver. Legacy "You must always strive to be the best, but you must never believe that you are." &mdash;Juan Manuel Fangio The official Formula One website states of Fangio: "Many consider him to be the greatest driver of all time." Several highly successful later drivers, such as Jim Clark, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna and Michael Schumacher, have been compared with Fangio. However, it is acknowledged that such comparisons are not realistic, since the qualities required for success, the levels of competition, and the rules have changed over time. His record of five World Championship titles stood for 45 years, until German driver Michael Schumacher took his sixth title in 2003. Schumacher said, "Fangio is on a level much higher than I see myself. What he did stands alone and what we have achieved is also unique. I have such respect for what he achieved. You can't take a personality like Fangio and compare him with what has happened today. There is not even the slightest comparison." A statue of Fangio in Monaco. In his home country of Argentina, Fangio is revered as one of the greatest sportsmen the nation has ever produced. Argentines often refer to him as El Maestro, el mejor, which translates into The Master, the best one. The first Michel Vaillant story was partly based on an imaginary conflict stirred up by fictional newspaper The New Indian on Fangio winning the World Championship at the Indy 500. Six statues of Fangio, sculpted by Catalan artist Joaquim Ros Sabat&eacute;, stand at race venues around the world: Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires; Monte Carlo, Monaco; Montmel&oacute;, Spain; N&uuml;rburgring, Germany; Stuttgart-Untert&uuml;rkheim, Germany; and Monza, Italy. An automobile museum was established in Balcarce (Fangio's birthplace) in 1986, and named the Museo Juan Manuel Fangio (Juan Manuel Fangio Museum). Argentina's largest oil company, Repsol YPF, launched the "Fangio XXI" gas brand. The Zonda 2005 C12 F was named after him in 2005 because of his endorsement (the Zonda was originally intended to be named "Fangio F1," but was changed out of respect after his death). Maserati created a special website in 2007 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of his fifth and final world championship triumph. A Mercedes-Benz W196R Formula 1 race car, driven by Fangio in his World Championship-qualifying Grand Prix races in 1954 and 1955, was sold for a record $30 million at an auction in England on July 12, 2013</p>

Ayrton Senna da Silva 21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994) was a Brazilian racing driver who won three Formula One world championships. He was killed in an accident while leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. He was among the most dominant and successful Formula One drivers of the modern era and is considered one of the greatest drivers in the history of the sport. He is the most recent driver to have been killed in a Formula One World Championship event. Senna began his motorsport career in karting, moving up to open-wheel racing in 1981, and winning the British Formula 3 championship in 1983. He made his Formula One debut with Toleman-Hart in 1984 before moving to Lotus-Renault the following year and winning six Grands Prix over the next three seasons. In 1988, he joined Frenchman Alain Prost at McLaren-Honda. Between them, they won all but one of the 16 Grands Prix that year and Senna claimed his first World Championship. Prost claimed the championship in 1989, and Senna his second and third championships in 1990 and 1991. In 1992, the Williams-Renault combination began to dominate Formula One. Senna nonetheless managed to finish the 1993 season as runner-up, winning five races and negotiating a move to Williams in 1994. Senna has often been voted as the best and most influential Formula One drivers of all time in various motorsport polls. He was recognised for his qualifying speed over one lap and from 1989 until 2006 held the record for most pole positions. He was also acclaimed for his wet weather performances, such as the 1984 Monaco Grand Prix, the 1985 Portuguese Grand Prix, and the 1993 European Grand Prix. He holds a record six victories at the Monaco Grand Prix, and is the third most successful driver of all time in terms of race wins. Senna courted controversy throughout his career, particularly during his turbulent rivalry with Alain Prost. In the Japanese Grands Prix of 1989 and 1990, each of which decided the Championship of that year, collisions between Senna and Prost determined the eventual winner. Early life and career Senna was born in the Pro-Matre Maternity Hospital of Santana, a neighbourhood of São Paulo. The middle child of wealthy Brazilian landowner and factory owner Milton da Silva and his wife Neide Senna da Silva, he had an older sister, Viviane and a younger brother, Leonardo The house where Senna spent the first four years of his life belonged to Neide's father, João Senna, and was located on the corner of Avenida Aviador Guilherme with Avenida Gil Santos Dumont, less than 100 meters from Campo de Marte, a large area where they operated the Aeronautics Material park and an airport. He was highly athletic, excelling in gymnastics and other sports, and developed an interest in cars and motor racing at the age of four. Senna also suffered from poor motor coordination and had trouble climbing stairways by the age of three. An electroencephalogram (EEG) found that Senna was not suffering from any problems. His parents gave Senna the nickname "Beco". At the age of seven, Senna first learned to drive a Jeep around his family's farm and gained the advantage of changing gears without the use of a clutch. Senna was successful in karting Senna attended Colegio Rio Branco in the São Paulo neighbourhood of Jardins and graduated in 1977 with a grade 5 in physics along with other grades in Mathematics, Chemistry and English. He later enrolled in a college that specialised in Business Administration but dropped out after three months. Overall, his grades amounted up to 68%. Senna's first kart was a small 1 HP go-kart, built by his father using a lawnmower engine. Senna started racing karts at Interlagos and entered a karting competition at the age of He started his first race on pole position. Senna faced rivals who were some years older than him but managed to lead most of the race before retiring after colliding with a rival. His father supported his son and Senna was soon managed by Lucio Pascal Gascon.Senna won the South American Kart Championship in 1977. He contested the Karting World Championship each year from 1978 to 1982, finishing runner-up in 1979 and 1980. He was the team-mate of Terry Fullerton in 1978, who Senna later felt was the rival he got the most satisfaction from racing against. In 1981, Senna moved to England to begin single-seater racing, winning the RAC and Townsend-Thoreson Formula Ford 1600 Championships that year with the Van Diemen team. Despite this, Senna initially did not believe he would continue in motorsport. At the end of the season, under pressure from his parents to take up a role in the family business, Senna announced his retirement from Formula Ford and returned to Brazil. Before leaving England, however, Senna was offered a drive with a Formula Ford 2000 team for £10,000. Back in Brazil, he decided to take up this offer and returned to live in England. As Silva is a very common Brazilian name, he adopted his mother's maiden name, Senna. Senna went on to win the 1982 British and European Formula Ford 2000 championships under that surname. For that season, Senna arrived with sponsorship from Banerj and Pool. In 1983, Senna drove in the British Formula Three Championship with the West Surrey Racing team. He dominated the first half of the season until Martin Brundle, driving a similar car for Eddie Jordan Racing, closed the gap in the second part of the championship. Senna won the title at the final round after a closely fought and, at times, acrimonious battle.[20] In November that year, he triumphed at the inaugural Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix with Teddy Yip's Toyota powered Theodore Racing Team. Formula One career Toleman (1984) Senna's Toleman TG184 from 1984 on display in the Donington Grand Prix Collection In 1983, Senna tested for Formula One teams Williams, McLaren, Brabham and Toleman. Peter Warr of Lotus, Ron Dennis of McLaren, and Bernie Ecclestone of Brabham made offers for testing in 1984 and presented long-term contracts that tied Senna to driving later on. During his test for Williams at the 3.149 km (1.957 mi) Donington Park circuit, Senna completed 40 laps and was quicker than the other drivers, including Williams' reigning World Champion Keke Rosberg. Neither Williams nor McLaren had a vacancy for the 1984 season. Both Williams boss Frank Williams, and McLaren boss Ron Dennis noted that Senna insisted that he got to run their cars before anyone else (other than their regular drivers such as Rosberg) so that he would have the best chance of a good showing by having a fresh car. Peter Warr actually wanted to replace Nigel Mansell with Senna at Lotus, but their British based title sponsor, Imperial Tobacco (John Player & Sons), wanted a British driver. Senna, however, was determined to drive that season and certainly on his own terms. Senna's test for Brabham occurred at Paul Ricard in November 1983 and he set lap times two seconds slower than the team's lead driver, Nelson Piquet who allegedly gave Senna the nickname "the São Paulo taxi driver".[citation needed] Senna impressed the Brabham team and was linked to their second seat. However the teams main sponsor, Italian dairy company Parmalat, wanted an Italian driver (Brabhams second car was eventually shared by brothers Teo and Corrado Fabi), while Piquet convinced Ecclestone to sign his friend Roberto Moreno as the test driver. Consequently, he joined Toleman, a relatively new team, using less competitive Pirelli tyres. Venezuelan Johnny Cecotto, a former Grand Prix motorcycle World Champion, was his team mate. During 1984, Senna hired Nuno Cobra to assess his physical condition. Senna had been worried about his condition due to low weight. Senna made his debut at the 1984 Brazilian Grand Prix in Rio de Janeiro where he qualified 17th, but had the dubious honour of being the first retirement of the season when the Hart 415T engine blew its turbo on lap 8. He scored his first World Championship point in his second race at the South African Grand Prix at Kyalami with severe muscle spasms, replicating that result two weeks later at the Belgian Grand Prix. A combination of tyre issues and a fuel pressure problem resulted in his failure to qualify for the San Marino Grand Prix, the only time this happened during his career. Toleman decided not to run both cars during Friday qualifying at Imola due to a dispute with tyre supplier Pirelli (Toleman were in the process of switching from Pirelli to Michelin). Senna then suffered a fuel pressure problem in the wet Saturday session at Tosa (the furthest point on the circuit from the pits) and did not have enough time for it to be fixed to allow him to make the grid. Senna's best result of the season came at the Monaco Grand Prix, the first wet weather race of the season. Qualifying 13th on the grid, he made steady progress in climbing through the field, passing Niki Lauda for second on lap 19. He quickly began to cut the gap to race leader Alain Prost, but before he could attack Prost the race was stopped on lap 31 for safety reasons, as the rain had grown even heavier. At the time the race was stopped Senna was catching Prost by approximately 4 seconds per lap (while the Tyrrell-Ford of Stefan Bellof was catching both at the same rate). Senna passed Prost when Prost stopped in front of the red flag, before the end of the 32nd lap. According to the rules, the positions counted were those from the last lap completed by every driver, lap 31, at which point Prost was still leading.Senna's second place was his first podium in Formula One. The popular belief was that with Prost's McLaren-TAG having major brake troubles (they were regularly locking up due to not generating enough heat in the conditions), the premature ending of the race had robbed Senna of his maiden Grand Prix win. However, Toleman mechanics later confirmed that his Toleman TG184 had suffered significant suspension damage due to an early race incident, and his constant running over the curbs at the Chicane du Port and through the Piscine (swimming pool) over the last few laps before the red flag. The mechanics confirmed that had the race not been stopped, Senna would have been forced to retire within a few laps of the flag. Renowned throughout his career for his capacity to provide finite technical details about the performance of his cars and track conditions long before the advent of telemetry, it is this characteristic that led Senna's first F1 race engineer, Pat Symonds, to regard the US Grand Prix in Dallas, as the initial highlight of Senna's debut season, instead of the more popular Monaco where Senna and Toleman scored their first podium finish. This is by reference to the following recollection given by Symonds in an interview in 2014, to mark the 20th anniversary of Senna's death: "The car was reasonably competitive there, so we expected to have a good race but Ayrton spun early in the race. He then found his way back through the field in a quite effective way and we were looking for a pretty good finish but then he hit the wall, damaged the rear wheel and the driveshaft and retired, which was a real shame. The real significance of that was that when he came back to the pits he told me what happened and said "I'm sure that the wall moved!" and even though I've heard every excuse every driver has ever made, I certainly hadn't heard of that one! But Ayrton being Ayrton, with his incredible belief in himself, the absolute conviction, he then talked me into going with him, after the race, to have a look at the place where he had crashed. And he was absolutely right, which was the amazing thing! Dallas being a street circuit the track was surrounded by concrete blocks and what had happened - we could see it from the tyre marks - was that someone had hit at the far end of the concrete block and that made it swivel slightly, so that the leading edge of the block was standing out by a few millimetres. And he was driving with such precision that those few millimetres were the difference between hitting the wall and not hitting the wall. While I had been, at first, annoyed that we had retired from the race through a driver error, when I saw what had happened, when I saw how he had been driving, that increased my respect for the guy by quite a lot". Senna won the exhibition race to celebrate the opening of the new Nürburgring in 1984 That season, Senna took two more podium finishes that year—third at the British and Portuguese Grands Prix—and placed 9th in the Drivers Championship with 13 points overall. He did not take part in the Italian Grand Prix after he was suspended by Toleman for being in breach of his contract by signing for Lotus for 1985 without informing the Toleman team first.Senna became the first driver Lotus had signed not personally chosen by team founder Colin Chapman who had died in 1982. Senna also raced in two high-profile non-Formula One races in 1984: The ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring where, alongside Henri Pescarolo and Stefan Johansson, he co-drove a Joest Racing Porsche 956 to finish 8th, as well as an exhibition race to celebrate the opening of the new Nürburgring before the European Grand Prix, which was attended by several past and present Formula 1 drivers, each driving identical Mercedes 190E 2.3–16. Senna won from Niki Lauda and Carlos Reutemann (the race also included past, present and future World Champions such as Jack Brabham, Denny Hulme, Alan Jones, Nelson Piquet and Alain Prost).After the race Senna was quoted as saying, "Now I know I can do it." Senna was a last minute inclusion in the Mercedes race, taking over from Emerson Fittipaldi. Lotus (1985–1987) 1985 Senna was partnered in his first year at Lotus-Renault by Italian driver Elio de Angelis. At the second round of the season, the Portuguese Grand Prix, Senna took the first pole position of his Formula 1 career. He converted it into his first victory in the race, which was held in very wet conditions, winning by over a minute from Michele Alboreto and lapping everyone up to and including 3rd placed Patrick Tambay. The race was the first 'Grand Slam' of Senna's career as he also set the fastest lap of the race. He would not finish in the points again until coming second at the Austrian Grand Prix, despite taking pole three more times in the intervening period. (His determination to take pole at the Monaco Grand Prix had infuriated Alboreto and Niki Lauda; Senna had set a fast time early and was accused of deliberately baulking the other drivers by running more laps than necessary, a charge he rejected, though the accusations would continue in Canada when drivers accused him of running on the racing line when on his slow down lap forcing others on qualifiers to move off line and lose time). Two more podiums followed in the Netherlands and Italy, before Senna added his second victory, again in wet conditions, at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium. Senna's relationship with De Angelis soured over the season, as both drivers demanded top driver status within Lotus and, after spending six years at the team, De Angelis departed for Brabham at the end of the year, convinced that Lotus were becoming focused around the Brazilian. Senna and De Angelis finished the season 4th and 5th respectively in the driver rankings, separated by five points in the quick but unreliable 97T. In terms of qualifying, however, Senna had begun to establish himself as the quickest in the field: his tally of seven poles that season was far more than that of any of the other drivers (Renault's V6 qualifying engines were reported to be producing over 1,000 bhp (746 kW; 1,014 PS)). 1986 Senna driving for Lotus at the 1986 British Grand Prix De Angelis was replaced at Lotus by Scotland's Johnny Dumfries after Senna vetoed Derek Warwick from joining the team, saying that Lotus could not run competitive cars for two top drivers at the same time. Senna allegedly pushed for his former flat mate and fellow Brazilian Maurício Gugelmin to join the team as a pure number two driver, but the teams major sponsor John Player & Sons (JPS) insisted on a British driver which led to the signing of Dumfries. Senna later admitted "It was bad, bad. Until then I had a good relationship with Derek."Senna started the season well, coming second in Brazil behind the Williams-Honda of Nelson Piquet, and winning the Spanish Grand Prix by just 0.014s from Piquet's team mate Nigel Mansell in one of the closest finishes in Formula One history to find himself leading the World Championship after two races. However, poor reliability, particularly in the second half of the season, saw him drift behind the Williams pairing of Mansell and Piquet, as well as defending and eventual champion, Alain Prost. Nonetheless, Senna was once more the top qualifier with eight poles, with a further six podium finishes included another win at the Detroit Grand Prix, thus finishing the season fourth in the driver's standings again, with a total of 55 points. After winning the Detroit Grand Prix - which took place two days after Brazil was eliminated from the 1986 FIFA World Cup - Senna asked a trackside supporter for the Brazilian flag and he drove one lap waving it. Thereafter, he repeated this ritual every time he won a race. Senna also had a brief foray into rallying where he tried out a Vauxhall Nova, a MG Metro 6R4, a Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and a Ford Escort on a stretch of land closed to the public. 1987 Team Lotus had a new engine deal in 1987, running the same turbocharged Honda V6 engines as Williams had used to win the previous year's Constructors' Championship, and with them came a new team-mate, 34-year-old Japanese driver, Satoru Nakajima. The team guaranteed Senna contractually preferential treatment over Nakajima in the allocation of equipment. Senna started the season with mixed fortunes: a podium at the San Marino Grand Prix was tempered by controversy at the following race at Spa-Francorchamps, where he collided with Mansell, and afterward in the pits an angered Englishman grabbed Senna by the throat and had to be restrained by Lotus mechanics.Senna then won two races in a row, which helped him take the lead in the World Championship: the ensuing Monaco Grand Prix (the first of his record six victories at the Principality) and the Detroit Grand Prix, his second victory in two years at the Michigan street circuit and the first ever for an active suspension F1 car. As the championship wore on however, it became evident that the Williams cars had the advantage over the rest of the field, the gap between the Honda-engined teams made most obvious at the British Grand Prix, where Mansell and Piquet lapped the Lotuses of Senna and Nakajima who finished 3rd and 4th respectively. Senna became dissatisfied with his chances at Lotus and at Monza it was announced that he would be joining McLaren for 1988. Senna finished the season strongly, coming second in the final two races in Japan and Australia, however post-race scrutineering at the final race found the brake ducts of his Lotus to be wider than permitted by the rules and he was disqualified, bringing his last and most successful season with Lotus to a sour end. Senna was classified third in the final standings, with 57 points, with six podium finishes and only one pole position. This season marked a turning point in Senna's career as, throughout the year, he built a deep relationship with Honda, one which would pay big dividends, as McLaren had secured Williams' supply of Honda's V6 turbo engines for 1988. McLaren (1988–1993) 1988 Senna won his first World Championship in 1988 driving the McLaren MP4/4. In 1988, thanks to the relationship he had built up with Honda throughout the 1987 season with Lotus, and with the approval of McLaren's number one driver and then-double world champion, Alain Prost, Senna joined the McLaren team. The foundation for a fierce competition between Senna and Prost was laid, culminating in a number of dramatic race incidents between the two over the next five years. However, the experienced pair also quickly realised that despite their personal rivalry, they had to work together, especially in testing, in order to keep ahead of their main opposition from Ferrari, Williams, Benetton, Lotus, and March. One notable incident of the year was at the Monaco Grand Prix where Senna outqualified Prost by 1.4 seconds and led for most of the race before crashing on lap 67.Instead of returning to the pit lane, Senna went back to his apartment and did not contact the team until he walked into the pit garage as they were packing up later that night. As the television cameras had not captured his crash, team boss Ron Dennis did not know what had caused his DNF until then, though Prost speculated that judging from the tyre marks it appeared as though Senna had clipped the inside barrier at Portiers which pitched him into the outside guard rail. At the 1988 Portuguese Grand Prix, Prost made a slightly faster start than Senna but the Brazilian dived into the first corner ahead. Prost responded and went to pass Senna at the end of the first lap. Senna swerved to block Prost, forcing the Frenchman to nearly run into the pit wall at 290 km/h (180 mph). Prost kept his foot down and soon edged Senna into the first corner and started pulling away. Though Prost was angered by Senna's manoeuvre, the Brazilian got away with a warning from the FIA. At the post race team de-brief Prost voiced his anger at the move which prompted Senna to apologize to Prost for the incident. Ultimately, the pair won 15 of 16 races in the McLaren MP4/4 in 1988 with Senna coming out on top, winning his first Formula One world championship title by taking eight wins to Prost's seven. Prost scored more points over the season, but had to drop three second places as only the 11 best scores counted. However, the biggest incident of the year happened at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza. With two laps remaining, Senna held a five second lead over the Ferrari's of Gerhard Berger and Michele Alboreto who were closing in on the McLaren (Prost had earlier retired with a badly misfiring engine). Going into the Rettifilo Chicane Senna closed on the Williams of Jean-Louis Schlesser (standing in for a sick Nigel Mansell). Schlesser side wide attempting to give Senna room to lap him, but managed to regain control before going into the sand trap. Unfortunately Senna didn't give the Williams room and took his normal racing line. Subsequently the McLaren was t-boned and ended up beached on a curb with broken rear suspension while Ferrari would go on to an emotional 1-2 finish in the first Italian Grand Prix since the death of the teams founder Enzo Ferrari. This would prove to be the only race McLaren did not win in 1988. During the season Senna re-wrote the record books. His eight wins beat the old record of seven jointly held by Jim Clark (1963) and Prost (1984). His 13 pole positions also beat the record of nine held by Nelson Piquet (1984). 1989 Senna driving the McLaren MP4/5 in 1989 The following year, the rivalry between Senna and Prost intensified into numerous battles on the track and a psychological war off it.Tension and mistrust between the two drivers increased when Senna overtook Prost at the restart of the San Marino Grand Prix, a move which Prost claimed violated a pre-race agreement (Senna denied the existence of any agreement, though Prost's story was backed up by John Hogan of the team's major sponsor Marlboro). Senna took an early lead in the championship with victories in San Marino, Monaco, and Mexico. Senna also achieved the feat of leading every lap of those races which was not equalled until Sebastian Vettel in 2012. Senna also managed to win in Germany, Belgium and Spain. However, unreliability in Phoenix, Canada, France, Britain and Italy, together with collisions in Brazil and Portugal, swung the title in Prost's favour. Prost took the 1989 world title after a collision with Senna at the Suzuka Circuit in Japan, the penultimate race of the season, which Senna needed to win to remain in contention for the title. Prost had managed to leave the grid faster than Senna by removing the gurney flap from his car, which was unbeknownst to Senna. This reduction in aerodynamic downforce made Prost's car faster on the straights, but slower through corners- a clever choice to make it even harder for Senna to pass on a circuit already difficult to pass on. On lap 46, Senna had finally come next to Prost and attempted a pass on the inside at the last chicane. Prost turned right into the upcoming corner, cutting Senna off and tangling wheels with him. The collision caused both McLarens to slide to a standstill into the escape road ahead. Prost abandoned the race at that point whereas Senna urged marshals for a push-start, which he received, then proceeding with the race after a pit stop to replaced the damaged nose on his car. He took the lead from the Benetton of Alessandro Nannini and went on to claim victory, only to be disqualified following a stewards meeting after the race. Senna was disqualified for receiving a push start, cutting the chicane after the collision with Prost, and for crossing into the pit lane entry which was not part of the track.A large fine and temporary suspension of his Super License followed in the winter of 1989, and an irate Senna engaged in a bitter war of words with the FIA and its then President Jean-Marie Balestre, who he blamed for his disqualification in Japan. Senna claimed that Balestre had forced the race stewards to disqualify him in order for his fellow Frenchman Prost to win the championship, though the stewards of the meeting denied that Balestre forced their decision, claiming that he was not present when the decision was made. Senna finished the season second with six wins and one second place. Prost left McLaren for rivals Ferrari for the following year. 1990 In 1990, Senna took a commanding lead in the championship with six wins, two second places and three thirds. With Prost gone to Ferrari he also had a new team mate in Austrian driver Gerhard Berger. Among his victories were the opening round in Phoenix, in which he diced for the lead for several laps with a then-unknown Jean Alesi before coming out on top, and in Germany where he fought Benetton driver Alessandro Nannini throughout the race for the win. As the season reached its final quarter however, Alain Prost in his Ferrari rose to the challenge with five wins, including a crucial victory in Spain where he and team mate Nigel Mansell finished 1–2 for the Scuderia. Senna had gone out with a damaged radiator and the gap between Senna and Prost was now reduced to 9 points with two races remaining. At the penultimate round of the Championship in Japan at Suzuka, where Senna and Prost collided the previous year, Senna took pole ahead of Prost. Before qualifying Senna had sought assurances from the organizers to move pole position left onto the clean side of the racetrack. After qualifying FIA president Balestre denied Senna's request, leaving Senna to start on the dirty right hand side, thus favouring Prost on the left. In addition, as revealed by F1 journalist, Maurice Hamilton, the FIA had warned that crossing the yellow line of the pit exit on the right to better position oneself at the first corner would have not been appropriate, further infuriating Senna. At the beginning of the race, Prost pulled ahead of Senna, who immediately tried to re-pass Prost at the first corner. While Prost turned in, Senna kept his foot on the accelerator and the cars collided at 270 km/h (170 mph) and spun out of the race, making Senna world champion. Following the second championship deciding collision in two years, Jackie Stewart famously interviewed Senna at the 1990 Australian Grand Prix (were Senna predictably won pole and led for 61 laps before gearbox trouble forced him to slide off into a tyre barrier) and brought up a number of controversial collisions Senna had been involved in over the last couple of years, stating that Senna had made more contact with other cars and drivers in the last 4 years than all the champions before him. An angry Senna questioned how someone like Stewart, himself a triple World Champion, could ask questions like he did knowing the pressure drivers raced under. Senna later told Stewart he would not talk to him again. A year later, after taking his third world championship, Senna explained to the press his actions of the previous year in Suzuka. He maintained that prior to qualifying fastest, he had sought and received assurances from race officials that pole position would be changed to the left-hand, clean side of the track (where the racing line was), only to find this decision reversed by Jean-Marie Balestre after he had taken pole.Senna said that he was not going to accept what he saw as unfair decision-making by Balestre, including his 1989 disqualification and the incorrect pole position in 1990 (though some in the F1 paddock noted that the pole position at Suzuka was actually on the same side of the track it had been since F1 returned to Japan in 1987, and many privately wondered why Senna was suddenly making a fuss about it considering he had been on pole there in both 1988 and 1989 when he was also fighting Prost for the championship). Senna stated that no matter what happened he would not yield the corner and that Prost taking his normal racing line would result in an accident. Prost would later go on record slamming Senna's actions as "disgusting", saying that he seriously considered retiring from the sport after that incident. 1991 Senna won the 1991 United States Grand Prix in his McLaren MP4/6. In 1991, Senna became the youngest ever three-time world champion, taking seven wins and increasing his pole position record to 60 from 127 events. Prost, because of the downturn in performance at Ferrari the likes of which littered the teams history, was no longer a serious competitor. In pre-season testing, Senna made public misgivings about the car's competitiveness with the new Honda V12 stating that the engine was not as powerful as the prior year's V10. Senna won the first four races as his rivals struggled to match his pace and reliability. By mid-season, Nigel Mansell in the Williams-Renault was able to put up a challenge. Before the Mexican Grand Prix, Senna was injured in a jet skiing accident near São Paulo for which he required stitches on the back of his head. During qualifying for the race, he crashed into a tyre barrier and his car rolled over. At the British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Senna's car had come to a halt on the final lap but he was not left stranded out on the circuit, as race-winner Mansell pulled over on his parade lap and allowed the Brazilian to ride on the Williams side-pod back to the pits. During the Spanish Grand Prix Senna and Mansell went wheel to wheel with only centimetres to spare, at over 320 km/h (200 mph) down the main straight, a race that the Briton eventually won. Though Senna's consistency and the Williams's unreliability at the beginning of the season gave him an early advantage, Senna insisted that Honda step up their engine development program and demanded further improvements to the car before it was too late. These modifications enabled him to make a late season push and he managed to win three more races to secure the championship, which was settled for good in Japan (yet again) when Mansell (who needed to win), went off at the first corner while running third and beached his Williams-Renault into the gravel trap. Senna finished second, handing the victory to teammate Gerhard Berger at the last corner as a thank-you gesture for his support over the season. Senna was planning to move to the Williams team for the 1992 season, but Honda's CEO, Nobuhiko Kawamoto, personally requested that he remain at McLaren-Honda, which Senna did out of a sense of loyalty. 1992 Senna won the 1992 Monaco Grand Prix in his McLaren MP4/7A. In 1992, Senna's determination to win manifested itself in dismay at McLaren's inability to challenge Williams's all-conquering FW14B car. McLaren's new car for the season had several shortcomings. There was delay in getting the new model running (it debuted in the third race of the season, the Brazilian Grand Prix) and in addition to lacking active suspension, the new car suffered from reliability issues, was unpredictable in fast corners, while its Honda V12 engine was no longer the most powerful on the circuit.Senna scored wins in Monaco, Hungary, and Italy that year. During qualifying for the Belgian Grand Prix, French driver Érik Comas crashed heavily and Senna was the first to arrive at the scene. He got out of his car and ran across the track to help the Frenchman, disregarding his own safety in an effort to aid a fellow driver. He later went to visit Comas in hospital. His actions won universal praise from those in Formula One and seemed to soften his hard-nosed image. Senna finished fourth overall in the championship, behind the Williams duo of Mansell and Riccardo Patrese, and Benetton's Michael Schumacher. Senna's relationship with Schumacher had deteriorated throughout 1992. At the Brazilian Grand Prix, Schumacher accused Senna of 'playing around' while attempting to overtake Senna, who had a problem with his engine. At the French Grand Prix Schumacher collided with Senna, resulting in Senna's retirement. Senna later confronted Schumacher, who admitted responsibility for the accident. At a test session for the German Grand Prix Senna and Schumacher had a confrontation in the pits, with Senna grabbing Schumacher by the collar and accusing him of endangering him by blocking him on the track. Questions about Senna's intentions for the upcoming 1993 season lingered throughout 1992, as he did not have a contract with any team by the end of that year. Ferrari had offered him a contract which Senna discussed with Niki Lauda but decided to decline the offer.He felt the McLaren cars were becoming less competitive than in previous years, especially given Honda's decision to abandon the sport at the end of 1992 and McLaren's lack of active suspension relating to rival Williams. Given this scenario, Ayrton Senna secured an IndyCar testing session with the support of conpatriot and Penske driver, Emerson Fittipaldi. In December 1992, in fact, Senna visited Firebird International Raceway in Chandler, Arizona[83] to test a 1992 Penske PC-21 racer. Unlike the more advanced F1 cars, this IndyCar was powered by a turbo Chevrolet V8, had a traditional transmission with clutch pedal, iron brakes, and was markedly heavier. To familiarise himself, Senna initially ran 14 relatively slow laps before completing a further 10 laps on the same tyres and setting a best time of 49.09 seconds. By comparison Fittipaldi had set a best time of 49.70 seconds, which he later improved down to 48.5 seconds only by using the new 1993 Penske PC-22 at his disposal during this test session. 1993 Senna came from the back of the field to finish fourth at the 1993 German Grand Prix at Hockenheim. For 1993, attempts by McLaren boss Ron Dennis to secure a supply of the dominant Renault V10 engine failed.[86] Similarly, Senna's offers to drive for Williams-Renault for free also failed, given that Alain Prost (who was returning to the sport after a sabbatical year) succeeded in obtaining the inclusion of a clause in his contract with Williams vetoing Senna from joining as a team-mate. Faced with this, during a press conference at the season opening test session at the Estoril Circuit in Portugal, an infuriated Senna called Prost a coward, leading to some commentators stating that what Prost had done was no different to Senna vetoeing Derek Warwick from joining Lotus in 1986. By this time, McLaren was forced to take a customer supply of Ford V8 engines, which were two specifications behind that of Ford's then factory team, Benetton. McLaren hoped to make up for the inferior horsepower with mechanical sophistication, including an effective active suspension system - though the system itself proved difficult at times, especially for new team mate Michael Andretti. It is with this plan that Dennis finally persuaded Senna to stay with McLaren. The Brazilian, however, agreed to do so only for the first race in South Africa, where he would assess whether McLaren's equipment was competitive enough for him to put in a good season. After driving McLaren's 1993 car, the McLaren MP4/8, Senna concluded that the new car had a surprising potential, albeit with a Ford V8 engine down on power relative to Prost's Renault V10. Senna thus extended his deal with McLaren on a race-by-race basis instead of a full year contract, ending up staying for the whole of 1993 in any event.Reportedly, this engagement was on a $1 million per race basis and, despite mid-season testing with a Lamborghini V12 proved encouraging, with McLaren then signing an engine supply deal with Peugeot for the 1994 season, it all proved insufficient to continue to retain Senna past 1993. In the opening race in South Africa, Senna finished in second place after surviving a collision with Schumacher. Senna won in changing conditions in Brazil and Donington. The latter has often been regarded as one of Senna's greatest victories, in the process setting a record for the fastest lap in an F1 race driving through the then speed-unrestricted pit lane. He was fifth at the first corner and led the race at the end of the first lap going on to lap all but 2nd place in a race where up to seven pit stops were required by some drivers for rain or slick tyres.Senna then scored a second-place finish in Spain and a record-breaking sixth win at Monaco.After Monaco, the sixth race of the season, Senna unexpectedly led the championship from Prost in the Williams-Renault. As the season progressed, Alain Prost and Damon Hill asserted the superiority of their Williams-Renault cars, while Senna suffered mechanical failures in Imola, Canada, Britain, Hungary and Portugal. Senna won the penultimate race of the season in Japan, which was marked by an incident involving Jordan's rookie Eddie Irvine, twice unlapping himself against Senna. Immediately after the race, Senna attended at Jordan's garage and, following a lengthy and heated discussion, punched the Irishman in the face. The season concluded in Australia, with what would be Senna's 41st and last F1 career win as well as the last win for an active suspension F1 car (ironically, 1987 saw the first victory for such cars also at the hands of Senna in Monaco). The win in Adelaide was an emotional one due to Senna ending his successful career with McLaren and defeating his biggest rival, Alain Prost, for the last time. Because of the Frenchman's imminent retirement from the sport, Senna surprised the F1 community by openly welcoming Prost on the top step of the podium, which many considered a sign of pacification between the duo. Overall, Senna finished the championship second to Prost. During Tina Turner's after race concert in Adelaide, Senna surprised everyone, including Turner, when he appeared on-stage midway through the night. With the crowd cheering, Turner admitted she was a fan of the Brazilian and re-sang her hit "The Best" as a tribute to Senna and his Australian Grand Prix win earlier in the day. Williams (1994) For 1994, Senna was able to finally join the Williams team given the retirement of Prost and was reportedly paid a $20 million salary.Rule changes for 1994 had banned active suspension, traction control and ABS. During pre-season testing the new Williams FW16 car exhibited none of the superiority of the FW15C and FW14B cars that preceded it, and Senna found himself in close running with the Benetton B194 of Schumacher. Senna expressed his discomfort with the handling of his car, stating "I have a very negative feeling about driving the car and driving it on the limit and so on ... Some of that is down to the lack of electronic change. Also, the car has its own characteristics which I'm not fully confident in yet." Senna further added, "It's going to be a season with lots of accidents, and I'll risk saying that we'll be lucky if something really serious doesn't happen." The first race of the season was at Interlagos in Brazil, where Senna took pole. In the race Senna took an early lead but Schumacher's Benetton was never far behind. Schumacher took the race lead for good after passing Senna in the pits. While trying for a win, he pushed too hard and spun the car coming out of Junção on lap 56, stalling it and retiring from the race. The second race was the inaugural Pacific Grand Prix at Aida where Senna again placed the car on pole. However, after being beaten to the first corner by second qualifier Schumacher, he was hit from behind in the first corner by Mika Häkkinen and his race came to a definitive end when, while spinning backwards into the first corner's gravel trap, the Ferrari driven by Nicola Larini t-boned the Williams. Both drivers retired with front suspension damage. Hill also retired with transmission problems, while Schumacher took victory again. It was Senna's worst start to a Formula One season, failing to finish or score points in the first two races, despite taking pole both times. Schumacher was leading Senna in the drivers' championship by twenty points. In occasion of the 20th anniversary of Senna's death, Ferrari president Luca Cordero di Montezemolo revealed that, on 27 April 1994, he had held discussions at his home in Bologna with Senna about a future Ferrari engagement. Suspicion of foul play by the Benetton team (who were sanctioned for various technical violations over the course of the 1994 season) was said to have troubled Senna that season. For example, in the words of his then teammate, Damon Hill, Senna had chosen to spend a bit of time at the first corner of the Aida circuit after his retirement from the Pacific Grand Prix, to listen to Schumacher's car as it went past. Senna "concluded that there was, what he regarded, as unusual noises from the engine". From that point, discussions ensued about whether the Benetton had some "special tweak" giving Benetton an advantage. Death Main articles: Death of Ayrton Senna and 1994 San Marino Grand Prix Senna's fatal accident at the moment of impact Senna's final race was the San Marino Grand Prix, which was held on the "Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari" circuit located in Imola, Italy, between Thursday, 28 April, and Sunday, 1 May 1994. He had stayed in room no. 200 at the Hotel Castello in Bologna. The European leg of the F1 season, starting at Imola, was traditionally considered the beginning of the yearly competition. Senna, who did not finish the two opening races of the season, declared that this was where his season would start, with fourteen races, as opposed to sixteen, in which to win the title. Williams brought modified FW16s to Imola in an attempt to improve the car's handling. On Friday, Senna placed the car on pole for a then-record 65th and final time, but he was upset by events unfolding that race weekend. Senna complained about the FW16's handling and reported that the car's performance was generally worse after the engineers' latest adjustments.During the afternoon qualifying session, Senna's compatriot and protégé Rubens Barrichello was involved in a serious accident when his Jordan became airborne at the Variante Bassa chicane and hit the tyre-wall and fence. Barrichello suffered a broken nose and arm and withdrew from the event. Barrichello reported that Senna was the first person he saw upon regaining consciousness. During Saturday qualifying, Austrian rookie Roland Ratzenberger was killed after the front wing of his Simtek-Ford broke entering the 190 mph (310 km/h) Villeneuve corner, sending the car into a concrete wall.Senna immediately visited the accident scene and medical centre where he was met by FIA Medical Chief Professor Sid Watkins. Watkins suggested to a tearful Senna to retire from racing and go fishing (a hobby they both shared), to which Senna replied that he could not stop racing. Senna was later called in front of the stewards for commandeering an official car and climbing the medical centre fence, and a row ensued, although Senna was not punished. Senna spent his final morning on the Sunday talking to former teammate and rival Alain Prost to discuss the re-establishment of the Grand Prix Drivers' Association, with the aim of improving safety in Formula One. Prost had retired from the sport at the end of the 1993 season and was now a media presenter. As the most senior driver in competition, Senna offered to take the role of leader, starting from the next race in Monaco. During the drivers' briefing, concerns had been raised about the mainly promotional use of a Porsche 911 lead car for the warm-up lap, with organizers agreeing to abandon the practice. It is said that Williams Chief Engineer, Patrick Head had pranked Senna on the grid by advising him that the lead car would not be excluded from the warm-up lap after all. At the start of the Grand Prix, Senna retained the lead from Schumacher but proceedings soon became interrupted by a startline accident. JJ Lehto's Benetton-Ford had stalled and was hit by the Lotus-Mugen Honda of Pedro Lamy. A wheel and debris landed in the main grandstand, injuring eight fans and a police officer. The safety car, a sporty version of the Opel Vectra medium family saloon, was deployed for several laps. The Vectra's slow pace was later questioned because of the consequential drop in tyre pressures on the Formula One cars. Senna had pulled alongside the Vectra and gesticulated to the driver, Max Angelelli, to increase his speed. On lap 6, the race resumed and Senna immediately set a quick pace with the third quickest lap of the race, followed by Schumacher. As Senna rounded the high-speed Tamburello corner on lap 7, the car left the racing line at around 191 mph (307 km/h), ran in a straight line off the track, and hit the concrete retaining wall at around 145 mph (233 km/h), after what telemetry showed to be an application of the brakes for around two seconds. The red flag was shown as a consequence of the accident. Within two minutes of crashing, Senna was extracted from his race car by Professor Sid Watkins and his medical team. Initial treatment took place by the side of the car, with Senna having a weak heartbeat and significant blood loss (approximately 4.5 litres). Because of Senna's poor neurological condition, Professor Watkins performed an on-site tracheotomy and requested the immediate airlifting of Senna to Bologna's Maggiore Hospital, where he was declared dead hours later. Watkins later said that as soon as he saw Senna's fully dilated pupils, he knew that his brainstem was inactive and that he would not survive. It is believed that the right-front wheel and suspension was sent back into the cockpit, striking Senna on the right side of his helmet, forcing his head back against the headrest. In addition, a piece of the upright assembly, most likely a tie rod, penetrated the helmet visor, which was a new, thinner version, above his right eye. Senna sustained fatal skull fractures, brain injuries and a ruptured temporal artery. It was later revealed that, as medical staff examined Senna, a furled Austrian flag was found in his car—a flag that he had intended to raise in honour of Ratzenberger after the race. Photographs of Ayrton Senna being treated on the track by emergency medical personnel were taken by Senna's friend and Autosprint's picture editor, Angelo Orsi. Out of respect, those photographs have never been made public. On 27 April 2014, as part of celebrating Senna on the 20th anniversary of his death, a 3 journalist panel composed of Murray Walker, Maurice Hamilton and David Tremayne interviewed by SkySportF1's Simon Lazenby concurred that, at his final F1 grand prix race Senna was under extreme pressure due to: the serious crash of his young compatriot, Rubens Barrichello during Friday practice, whom Senna visited in hospital; the death of F1 rookie Roland Ratzenberger during Saturday qualifying; being 20 points behind in the World Championship; suspicion of the rival Benetton B194 car being illegal; the poor performance of his Williams FW16; family disapproval of his then girlfriend, Adriane Galisteu. Funeral Senna's grave, with the inscription "Nothing can separate me from the love of God" Senna's death was considered by many of his Brazilian fans to be a national tragedy, and the Brazilian government declared three days of national mourning. The Italian Air Force offered to fly the coffin back to Brazil, but the Senna family wished that it return home in a Brazilian plane. Contrary to airline policy and out of respect, Senna's coffin was allowed to be flown back to his home country in the passenger cabin of a VARIG McDonnell-Douglas MD-11 airliner, accompanied by his distraught younger brother, Leonardo, and close friends. The plane was escorted by fighter jets into São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport on Thursday 5 May 1994, where it was met by São Paulo's mayor, Paulo Maluf, and state governor, Luís Antônio Fleury. The coffin was carried by soldiers from the Policia da Aeronautical to a fire engine, where eight cadets from the Military Police Academy mounted guard as it carried the coffin on the 20-mile journey into the city. Leading the motorcade were seventeen police motorbikes, and 2,500 policemen lined the route to keep the crowds at bay. An estimated three million people flocked to the streets of Senna's hometown of São Paulo to offer him their salute. This is widely accepted as the largest recorded gathering of mourners in modern times. Over 200,000 people filed past as his body lay in state at the Legislative Assembly building in Ibirapuera Park. After the public viewing, a 21-gun salute was fired by the 2nd Artillery Brigade and seven Brazilian Air Force jets flew in a diamond formation as the funeral procession made its way to Morumbi Cemetery. Many prominent motor racing figures attended Senna's state funeral, such as team managers Ken Tyrrell, Peter Collins, Ron Dennis, and Frank Williams, and driver Jackie Stewart. The pallbearers included drivers Gerhard Berger, Michele Alboreto, Alain Prost, Thierry Boutsen, Damon Hill, Rubens Barrichello, Roberto Moreno, Derek Warwick, Mauricio Gugelmin, Hans Stuck, Johnny Herbert, Pedro Lamy, Maurizio Sala, Raul Boesel, Emerson Fittipaldi, Wilson Fittipaldi, and Christian Fittipaldi. Neither Sid Watkins nor Jo Ramírez, the McLaren team coordinator, could bear to attend because they were so grief-stricken. Senna's family did not allow FOM president Bernie Ecclestone, a friend of Senna's, to attend the ceremony, after an altercation between Ecclestone and Senna's brother Leonardo at Imola regarding Ecclestone's misconstrued reaction to the news of Ayrton's death and the fact that the race had not been abandoned after his accident. FIA President Max Mosley instead attended the funeral of Ratzenberger which took place on 7 May 1994, in Salzburg, Austria. Mosley said in a press conference ten years later, "I went to his funeral because everyone went to Senna's. I thought it was important that somebody went to his."Senna's grave bears the epitaph "Nada pode me separar do amor de Deus," which means "Nothing can separate me from the love of God" a reference to Romans 8:38–39 A testament to the adulation he inspired among fans worldwide was the scene at the Tokyo headquarters of Honda where the McLaren cars were typically displayed after each race. Upon his death, so many floral tributes were received that it overwhelmed the large exhibition lobby. This despite the fact Senna no longer drove for McLaren and that McLaren in the preceding seasons did not use Honda power. Senna had a special relationship with company founder Soichiro Honda and was beloved in Japan, where he achieved a near mythic status. For the next race at Monaco, the FIA decided to leave the first two grid positions empty and painted them with the colours of the Brazilian and the Austrian flags, to honour Senna and Ratzenberger. End of season At the season's finale, the 1994 Australian Grand Prix, Schumacher won the world championship controversially following a collision with his rival, and Senna team-mate, Damon Hill. During the official FIA conference, the German went on to dedicate his title to Senna.[130] Additionally, the first corner chicane at the Adelaide Street Circuit in Australia was renamed the Senna Chicane. The Brazilian having been on pole for the very first race at the circuit in 1985, as well as 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 and 1993. Senna also won the AGP in Adelaide in 1991 and 1993. Trial The cause of the accident had been identified as a steering column failure. Italian law requires that any unusual incident be investigated. Many court cases followed immediately afterwards and the judgement went on for years, with Williams being investigated for manslaughter. The last word from the Italian Court of Appeal was on 13 April 2007. In verdict no. 15050, the Court ruled thus: "It has been determined that the accident was caused by a steering column failure. This failure was caused by badly designed and badly executed modifications. The responsibility of this falls on Patrick Head, culpable of omitted control." Patrick Head was not arrested; in Italy the statute of limitation for manslaughter is 7 years and 6 months, and the final verdict was pronounced 13 years after the accident. Personal life Ayrton Senna at home in Brazil Senna was a devout Catholic, once saying: "Just because I believe in God, just because I have faith in God, it doesn't mean that I'm immune. It doesn't mean that I'm immortal" (1989).He often read the Bible on long flights from São Paulo to Europe.According to sister Viviane, Senna had sought strength from the Bible on the morning of his death after the events of the race weekend: "On that final morning, he woke and opened his bible and read a text that he would receive the greatest gift of all, which was God himself." As his profile rose, Senna expressed concern over the widespread poverty in Brazil. After his death it was discovered that he had quietly donated millions of his personal fortune (estimated at around $400 million) to help poor children. Shortly before his death, he created the framework for an organisation dedicated to Brazilian children, which later became the Instituto Ayrton Senna (IAS). Senna was often quoted using driving as a means for self-discovery and racing as a metaphor for life: "The harder I push, the more I find within myself. I am always looking for the next step, a different world to go into, areas where I have not been before. It's lonely driving a Grand Prix car, but very absorbing. I have experienced new sensations, and I want more. That is my excitement, my motivation." Towards the end of his career, Senna became increasingly preoccupied with the dangers of his profession. On the morning of his death he initiated the re-formation of the GPDA safety organisation, with which he had intended to work to improve the safety of his sport. In the late 1980s, to take advantage of the close relationship Honda had formed with Senna, the Japanese company asked him to help fine-tune the Honda NSX's suspension setting during its final development stages. The tests were conducted at Suzuka Circuit with chief NSX engineer Shigeru Uehara and his engineering team present to gather Senna's direct input. Senna found the prototype NSX initially lacked chassis stiffness to the level he was accustomed to, so the final production version was further reinforced to his satisfaction. Senna was also instrumental in bringing Audi cars into his native country, both as an import and manufacturing business. Audi entered Brazil in 1994 via Ayrton Senna's company, Senna Import, founded in 1993. Sales began in April that year, just a month before his untimely death. In 1999, Audi Senna was created as a joint venture of Audi with Senna Import. Senna's personal car in 1994 was an Audi S4. In the early 1990s Senna developed his own merchandise brand represented by a logo with a double S, after his full surname, "Senna da Silva". This logo is meant to represent an S chicane on a racing circuit. The Senna brand was on apparel, watches, bicycles (Carraro), motorcycles (as detailed in the "Legacy" section below) and boats. TAG Heuer and Hublot.have created limited edition watches to honor Senna, both during his lifetime and after his death. Senna owned several properties, including an organic farm in Tatuí, Brazil, a beach house in Angra dos Reis, Brazil, an apartment in São Paulo, an apartment in Monaco, and a house in Algarve, Portugal. In 1994, the latter residence is where Senna let his last girlfriend, Adriane Galisteu, stay for the start of the European leg of the F1 season. In his spare time, Senna enjoyed flying model planes and helicopters Senna enjoyed a range of physical activities including running, waterskiing, jet skiing, and paddleboarding. He also had several hobbies, such as flying real and model planes and helicopters, boating, fishing and riding his favourite Ducati motorbikes. His private jet was a British Aerospace 125 (BAe HS125), and he also piloted his own helicopter between his residences in Brazil along with travelling to races.He was left-handed. Senna was close friends with McLaren teammate Gerhard Berger, and the two were always playing practical jokes on each other. full citation needed] Berger is quoted as saying "He taught me a lot about our sport, I taught him to laugh."full citation needed] In the documentary film The Right to Win, made in 2004 as a tribute to Senna, Frank Williams notably recalls that as good a driver as Senna was, ultimately "he was an even greater man outside of the car than he was in it." Senna was married to Lilian de Vasconcelos Souza from 1981 until 1982. Vasconcelos, whom he had known since childhood, had difficulty adapting to her husband's racing life in England. Vasconcelos later said: "I was his second passion. His first passion was racing... There was nothing more important in the world for him, not family, not wife, nothing." Though he did not have much of an income early in his racing career, Senna insisted on supporting his wife with no help from his father out of a sense of pride. The marriage ended in divorce. Senna then courted Adriane Yamin, daughter of an entrepreneur from São Paulo, who was 15 years old when they began the relationship in 1985 and often chaperoned by her mother during meetings with Senna. They were briefly engaged, but the relationship was broken off by Senna in late 1988.Senna dated Brazilian TV star Xuxa from late 1988 until 1990. He then dated Christine Ferracciu, who lived with him at his homes in Monaco and Portugal, on and off between 1990 and 1991.Senna also had an affair with American model Carol Alt, and briefly dated models Marjorie Andrade and Elle Macpherson.At the time of his death Senna was in a relationship with Brazilian model, and later TV personality, Adriane Galisteu. One of the most extravagant claims involving Senna's past partners was made by Edilaine de Barros, a former model better known as Marcella Praddo. She alleged that that the couple dated from 1992 to 1994. Weeks after Senna's death, de Barros' child, Victoria, was born and claims that Senna was the father were soon made but abandoned following rejection of those claims by the Senna family. Years later, after joining a religious sect, the former model was convinced to sue against the estate of Senna. In 2000, DNA test of hair and saliva sample given by Senna's parents conclusively proved that he was not the father of de Barros' child. In the early years of F1, Senna was the subject of a smear campaign orchestrated by Nelson Piquet, ranging from Senna being regarded a taxi driver to being homosexual given his failed marriage.According to a 1990 interview by Brazilian edition of Playboy, Senna declared that he lost his virginity at 13 years of age to a prostitute arranged by his cousin, and he also insinuated having had a relationship with Piquet's would-be wife (hence Piquet's acrimony). Ayrton was the uncle of Formula One driver Bruno Senna (Bruno's mother Viviane being Ayrton Senna's sister), of whom he said in 1993: "If you think I'm fast, just wait until you see my nephew Bruno."This nephew raced in F1 between 2010 and 2012, never achieving major results and concluding his F1 career with Williams - a choice that was initially regarded by some as controversial, given the death of his uncle with that team. Legacy Memorial at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, where Senna was killed Many safety improvements were made in the sport following Senna's and Ratzenberger's deaths. These include improved crash barriers, redesigned tracks, higher crash safety standards (such as larger sills along the driver cockpit) and major cuts to engine power. The Tamburello corner and other parts of the Imola circuit were altered for 1995. This was despite calls for action in 1989, after a serious high-speed crash that saw Senna's friend, Gerhard Berger, suffering burns to his hand. No action took place after that crash because, following an inspection by Senna and Berger, they ended up siding with officials who had, for years, claimed that the wall could not be moved further back due to a river nearby. In July 1994, the Brazil national football team dedicated their 1994 World Cup victory to Ayrton Senna, and collectively held a banner on the field after defeating Italy in the final. Senna had met various members of the squad, including Leonardo, three months earlier in Paris, telling them "this is our year". Throughout the rest of the 1994 season, Senna was commemorated in various ways. Damon Hill along with Michael Schumacher both dedicated their individual success to Senna with Hill's victory in the Spanish Grand Prix and Schumacher's world championship victory in the Australian Grand Prix. Memorial at the site of his win at the 1993 European Grand Prix, Donington Park. A few months before his death, Senna had discussed with his sister the foundation of a charitable organization, based on a desire to contribute to those less fortunate in a more organised and effective manner. After his death, Viviane Senna set up the IAS in his honor, which has invested nearly US$80 million over the last twelve years in social programs and actions in partnership with schools, government, NGOs, and the private sector aimed at offering children and teenagers from low-income backgrounds the skills and opportunities they need to develop their full potential as persons, citizens and future professionals.The foundation is officially advised by Bernie Ecclestone, Frank Williams, Alain Prost, and Gerhard Berger. The Senninha ("Little Senna") cartoon character, born in 1993/94, was another means by which Senna extended his role model status in favour of Brazilian children. In his home country of Brazil, the main freeway from the international airport to São Paulo and a tunnel along route to the heart of the city is named in his honour. Also, one of the most important freeways of Rio de Janeiro is named after Senna ("Avenida Ayrton Senna"). The main road in Senna's Portuguese resort at Quinta do Lago, Algarve, was also dedicated to him, due to the fact that his villa there was very near (but not on) this road. A portion of the Interlagos circuit in São Paulo is named the "Senna Esses Chicane" in his honor. In the English town of Reading, Berkshire, where Senna lived for a short period of time, Ayrton Senna's name has been given to an avenue in the suburb of Tilehurst. In April 2000 Senna was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame.</p>

Marian Bublewicz

legenda / Rajdy samochodowe

Życiorys Marian Bublewicz – polski kierowca wyścigowy i rajdowy 25.08.1950 - 20.02.1993 r. Wicemistrz Europy w 1992 roku, Mistrz Polski w latach: 1975, 1983, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992. Łącznie wliczając starty w innych klasach zdobywca 20 tytułów mistrzowskich w Polsce. Twórca pierwszego w Polsce profesjonalnego teamu rajdowego (Marlboro Rally Team Poland). W 1993 roku znalazł się na priorytetowej liście "A" − 31 najlepszych kierowców rajdowych świata – publikowanej przez FIA. Największe sukcesy odnosił z pilotami: Ryszardem Żyszkowskim i Grzegorzem Gacem. Zmarł w szpitalu, w Lądku-Zdroju, na skutek ran odniesionych w wypadku podczas Zimowego Rajdu Dolnośląskiego, 2 km od startu 5. odcinka specjalnego Orłowiec – Złoty Stok, 20 lutego 1993. Jego samochód wypadł z zakrętu i uderzył w drzewo lewą stroną na wysokości przednich drzwi. Kierowca był przytomny, jednak profesjonalna pomoc nadeszła za późno i szanse Bublewicza na przeżycie drastycznie zmalały. Upamiętnienie Od sezonu '94 RSMP Rajd Zimowy nosi nazwę „Memoriału Mariana Bublewicza”. W 1993 roku, nakładem Wydawnictwa J&J Wrocław, ukazała się książka pt. Odcinek specjalny, poświęcona pamięci kierowcy i jego sukcesów. W 2000 w plebiscycie czytelników miesięcznika „Auto Moto i Sport” został wybrany najlepszym polskim kierowcą rajdowym XX wieku. Obecnie w miejscu wypadku, przy drodze wojewódzkiej nr 390 znajduje się tablica poświęcona pamięci Mariana Bublewicza. Marian Bublewicz jest patronem Zespołu Szkół Ogólnokształcących Mistrzostwa Sportowego w Olsztynie. Od 2007 organizowany jest Memoriał Janusza Kuliga i Mariana Bublewicza. Kamień pamiątkowy w miejscu gdzie zginął Marian Bublewicz Mistrzostwa Polski 1975 – samochodem Fiat 125p 1300 1979 – samochodami Opel Kadett GT/E 1983 – FSO Polonez 2000 Rally 1984-1986 – samochodami FSO Polonez 2000 gr.B i FSO Polonez 2000 Turbo 1987 – samochodem FSO Polonez 2000 Rally i FSO Polonez 1600 gr.A 1989-1991 – samochodem Mazda 323 4WD 1991 – samochodem Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1992 – samochodem Ford Sierra Cosworth 4x4 Samochody 1975-1978 – Fiat 125p 1300, Fiat 125p 1500, Fiat 125p 1600, Fiat 128 3p (wyścigi) 1979-1982 – Opel Kadett GTE, Opel Kadett GT 1983-1987 - FSO Polonez 2000, FSO Polonez 2000 Turbo, FSO Polonez 2000, FSO Polonez 2000 gr.B, FSO Polonez 2000 gr.C, FSO Polonez 1600, Stratopolonez 1988-1990 - Mazda 323 4WD, FSO Polonez 1600 1991-1993 - Ford Sierra RS Cosworth, Ford Sierra Cosworth 4x4 W latach 1991-1993 rajdowy zespół Mariana Bublewicza, posiadał cztery samochody: treningowy Ford Sierra RS Cosworth gr.N Ford Sierra RS Cosworth gr.A treningowy, całkowicie seryjny Ford Sierra Cosworth 4x4 Ford Sierra Cosworth 4x4 gr.A</p>

Janusz Kulig

legenda / Rajdy samochodowe

<p>Janusz Kulig 19.10.1969 - 13.02.2004 r. – kierowca rajdowy. Był trzykrotnym mistrzem Polski w rajdach samochodowych (1997, 2000, 2001), dwukrotnym wicemistrzem Polski (1998, 1999), wicemistrzem Europy (2002), dwukrotnym mistrzem Europy Centralnej (1998, 1999), mistrzem Słowacji (2001). Odniósł kilkanaście zwycięstw w rajdach eliminacyjnych mistrzostw Polski, startował także okazjonalnie w rajdach mistrzostw świata (odniósł sukces w Rajdzie Szwecji w 2003 r. w klasie samochodów produkcyjnych</p>

Bartosz Bejm

zawodnik / Kolarsteo MTB, Downhill

Ostatni rok był dość kiepski dla mnie ale nie o tym mowa, wcześniej przygotowywując się dobrze i sumiennie oraz mając cel mistrzostwo polski amatorów po 3 latach porządek i 4tych miejsc zdobyłem tytuł amatorskiego mistrza polski, co mi dało dużo do myślenia bo jeśli na mini mogę to czemu nie na mega, w od grudnia bardzo sumiennie trenuje przygotowywując się na dystanse mega, moim celem na 2015 jest tytuł mistrza polski na mega oraz wygranie wszystkim maratonów open an mega na skandii oraz dodatkowe maratony na których będę startował wysokie miejsca open 1-3 oraz start na mistrzostwach europy oraz świata (o ile fundusze pozwolą) w maratonie mtb, nie wydarzy się to wszystko bez pomocy ludzi dobrego serca jak było to kiedyś, poszukuje mediów które mnie wypromują w jakimś stopniu, oraz sponsorów, obojętnie pod jakim względem czy to finansowym czy rzeczowym , dla mam propozycje sponsorowania rzeczowego, mam dość duże doświadczenie w reklamowaniu marek w świecie kolarskiem, co przekłada sie na bardzo duże obroty, na świat kolarski wyłoniłem takie marki jak sis- który sprzedawał sie bardzo dobrze- na chwile obecną nakłady sa bardzo duze i dystrybuje przejęła firma shimano, enervit- co dało duza sprzedaz w sród amatorów jeszcze wtedy z mojego rodzinnego misata koło, odzywki squezzy - przez ostatki rok duzy skok w rynek oraz zwiekszona mocna sprzedaż, mcsport- duży skok w sprzedaż produktów firmy ashima! przede wszystkim firma vincere.pl - która przeszła w tym momencie na system b2b, również rozreklamowane sróbki, błotniki itd, sprzedaż firma takich jak pro bolt, esi grips, unex i swiss comp. kolejna firma brunox, dzięki mnie przeszło przez moje ręce tylko 2tys szt preparatów oczywiscie do tego trzeba dodac jak miałem sklep jeszcze (juz nie prowadze działalności) to były najwiekrze sprzedaze tych firm co wymieniłem, firma biketires przede wszystkim sprzedaż uszczelniaczy do opon trezado ! do tego firma vinco-bike - której koszyki na bidon przede wszystkim przez okres mojego uzytkowania sprzedawały sie w setkach, nie mam oceny jak to wygląda se strony sprzedażowej, bo nie mam do tego podglądu, musze też wspomnieć o sponsorach indywidualnych finansowych z mojego miasta, którzy też mieli swój udział oraz na pewno zwiększyła sie sprzedaż do takich firm należą mn. AD Blue, pizzeria K2, villa galegon, Galva-met, e-koło, fineweb, koneser i inni oraz patroni medialni : e-koło, xc-mtb.info i wiele innych. do tego warto wspomnieć o firmie fit4live - i Pan Jabub Kurcz- jako trener którego firma pomogła mi w przygotowanich - oraz dzięki mojej żywej reklamie wzrost uzytkowników

Bernard Hinault

legenda / Kolarstwo

Bernard Hinault (né le 14 novembre 1954 à Yffiniac) est un coureur cycliste français. Il est le troisième coureur à avoir remporté à cinq reprises le Tour de France après Jacques Anquetil et Eddy Merckx. En huit participations, il y gagne 28 étapes. Il compte également à son palmarès un titre de champion du monde sur route, trois Tours d'Italie et deux Tours d'Espagne. Surnommé le Blaireau, il a dominé le sport cycliste entre 1978 et 1986, remportant 216 victoires dont 144 hors critériums. Biographie Bernard Hinault naît le 14 novembre 1954 à Yffiniac, dans les Côtes-du-Nord, où ses parents, Joseph et Lucie, ont une petite exploitation agricole. Son père devient ensuite poseur de rails. Il a un frère aîné, Gilbert, une sœur et un frère cadets, Josianne et Pierre. Peu intéressé par l'école, Bernard Hinault obtient son certificat d'études primaires (CEP) à 14 ans. Il souhaite devenir ébéniste, mais la classe de menuiserie de Saint-Brieuc étant complète, il est inscrit d'office en métallurgie. Il décroche un certificat d'aptitude professionnelle (CAP) d'ajusteur quatre ans plus tard. À l'âge de huit ans, il roule pour la première fois sur une bicyclette, celle qui a été offerte à son frère Gilbert au Noël 1962. Il pratique l'athlétisme au collège du Sacré-Cœur de Saint-Brieuc, auquel il se rend à vélo, parcourant ainsi une vingtaine de kilomètres chaque jour. Il estime « avoir appris à domestiquer son souffle » grâce à l'athlétisme et avoir pris goût à la performance en montant la côte de Langueux lors de ses trajets quotidiens. Il accompagne régulièrement son cousin René aux courses qu'il dispute. C'est en le voyant gagner qu'il décide de prendre une licence au patronage catholique du Club olympique briochin (COB) deux jours plus tard, le 27 avril 1971, conquis par l'acharnement à conquérir la victoire, par ces jeunes coureurs qui donnent le meilleur d'eux-mêmes jusqu'à l'épuisement pour triompher . En fin d'année 1974, il épouse Martine, rencontrée deux ans auparavant et secrétaire à la Société laitière de l'Ouest. Ils ont deux fils : Mickael, né en 19752 et Alexandre, né en 19813. Bernard Hinault est le parrain de Christopher Anquetil, fils de Jacques Anquetil4. Carrière amateur Bernard Hinault est entraîné au COB par Robert Leroux, dont il vante les enseignements. Il participe à sa première course le 2 mai 1971 à Planguenoual avec le vélo de son frère Gilbert, et la remporte. Sur vingt courses durant cette saison, il en gagne douze. En 1972, il gagne à Arras la finale du Premier pas Dunlop, ancêtre du championnat de France junior. Il fait forte impression en faisant la course en tête durant les 60 derniers kilomètres, pour finir avec 30 secondes d'avance sur le peloton5. Après ce titre, il court davantage avec les seniors, afin de progresser. En fin de saison, il gagne le Grand élan breton, une course contre-la-montre de 60 km, à une vitesse moyenne de 41,7 km/h. En 1973, Hinault effectue à 18 ans son service militaire à Sissonne dans l'Aisne. À son retour au mois de décembre, il est manutentionnaire chez un chauffagiste et reprend le cyclisme. En mai 1974, il décide de se consacrer totalement au cyclisme et quitte son emploi. Il s'initie à la piste et remporte les championnats de Bretagne de poursuite et du kilomètre. Il est alors sélectionné pour les championnats de France. Il devient champion de France du kilomètre, en utilisant en finale des roues prêtées par Daniel Morelon, multiple champion de France, du monde et olympique qui constate qu'Hinault ne dispose pas du meilleur matériel. Quelques semaines plus tard, il est cette fois rapidement éliminé lors du tournoi du championnat du monde à Montréal. De retour en France, il remporte une étape et finit deuxième de la Route de France, une course par étapes, et participe en fin de saison à l'Étoile des Espoirs avec l'équipe de France. Il finit cinquième, après avoir été deuxième de l'étape contre-la-montre derrière le champion du monde de poursuite Roy Schuiten. En tant qu'amateur il remporte 36 victoires de 1971 à 1974. Carrière professionnelle L'avènement (1975-1977) Jean Stablinski, en 1997 Bernard Hinault devient coureur professionnel le 1er janvier 1975 dans l'équipe Gitane-Campagnolo, par l'entremise de Paul Tertre, dépositaire de la marque de cycle Juaneda, utilisée par Hinault. Il perçoit alors un salaire de 2 500 francs. Il est dirigé par Jean Stablinski et compte notamment parmi ses coéquipiers le Belge Lucien Van Impe. Sa première grande course internationale est Paris-Nice en 1975 qu'il termine à la septième place et premier Français. Il découvre ensuite Milan-San Remo (54e) puis les classiques flandriennes qu'il n'apprécie pas et où il abandonne. En avril, Hinault acquiert sa première victoire en tant que coureur professionnel en remportant le Circuit de la Sarthe, épreuve jusqu'alors amateur et qui devient cette année-là « open », c'est-à-dire ouverte aux professionnels et aux amateurs. En juin, Stablinski aligne Hinault au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, une erreur selon lui, après un début de saison qu'il juge chargé. Lorsque Jean Stablinski lui annonce son intention de le faire participer au Grand Prix du Midi libre, au Tour de l'Aude et aux premières étapes du tour de France, « uniquement pour les animer », Hinault décide de le quitter. Il rentre en Bretagne dès la fin du Dauphiné libéré et cherche une autre équipe. Il remporte le championnat de France de poursuite en août. En fin d'année, il est récompensé du trophée de la promotion Pernod, récompensant le meilleur coureur français de moins de 25 ans, et termine quatrième du Trophée Prestige, qui concerne l'ensemble des coureurs français. En 1976, Cyrille Guimard devient le nouveau directeur sportif de l'équipe Gitane, en remplacement de Jean Stablinski, licencié. Il vient de terminer sa carrière de coureur, débutée en 1968, et commence celle de directeur sportif. Hinault, qui a côtoyé Guimard en course depuis plusieurs années et l'apprécie, décide alors de rester chez Gitane. Alors que Hinault reprochait à Stablinski un programme de course trop chargé, Guimard souhaite ne pas lui faire brûler les étapes. Commençant la saison en ayant pris douze kilogrammes durant l'hiver, Hinault se classe douzième de Paris-Nice. En avril, il gagne à nouveau le Circuit de la Sarthe, puis s'impose sur la semi-classique Paris-Vimoutiers et le Tour d'Indre-et-Loire, en battant cette fois Schuiten au contre-la-montre. Il conserve ensuite à Vincennes le titre de champion de France de poursuite acquis l'année précédente. En juin, il est troisième du Grand Prix du Midi libre, puis remporte le Tour de l'Aude, épreuve dominée par l'équipe Gitane. En juillet, celle-ci remporte avec Lucien Van Impe le tour de France, auquel Hinault ne participe pas. Se préparant pour le championnat du monde sur route 1976, il gagne le Tour du Limousin en conservant la tête du classement général du premier au dernier jour, comme au Tour de l'Aude. Au championnat du monde, il finit sixième, battu au sprint par Eddy Merckx, et se plaint auprès du sélectionneur Richard Marillier du manque d'aide de ses coéquipiers. Celui-ci lui donne alors rendez-vous pour le championnat du monde de 1980 qui a lieu en France. En fin de saison, Hinault est récompensé du Trophée Prestige, destiné au meilleur coureur français de l'année. Cyrille Guimard, en 1993 Hinault est cinquième de Paris-Nice en début d'année 1977. En avril, il provoque la colère de Guimard en ne prenant pas le départ du Tour des Flandres, disputé dans des conditions climatiques difficiles. Conscient qu'il lui faut se racheter, il gagne quelques jours plus tard Gand-Wevelgem, une autre classique flamande jugée moins difficile. Il attaque à 15 km de l'arrivée et arrive à Wevelgem avec une minute et 24 secondes d'avance sur le second, Pietro Algeri. Cinq jours plus tard, il remporte la classique ardennaise Liège-Bastogne-Liège, l'un des cinq monuments du cyclisme. Il est le troisième Français à gagner cette course, après Camille Danguillaume et Jacques Anquetil. Il bat au sprint André Dierickx avec lequel il avait lâché les favoris dans la côte des Forges. En mai il prend le départ du Critérium du Dauphiné libéré afin de se tester en haute montagne. Il remporte cette épreuve en prenant la tête du classement général dès la première étape qu'il gagne. Il s'impose aussi lors de la cinquième étape à la Bastille malgré une chute dans un ravin dans la descente du col de Porte. Il montre durant cette semaine sa capacité à monter les cols parmi les meilleurs. Les organisateurs du Tour de France souhaitent sa participation en juillet. Guimard reste cependant sur sa position : il estime qu'il est trop tôt pour Hinault. Le Tour part sans lui, et voit la deuxième victoire de Bernard Thévenet. En fin de saison, Hinault est huitième du championnat du monde sur route 1977 et gagne le premier de ses cinq Grand Prix des Nations devant Joop Zoetemelk. L'ère Hinault (1978-1983) 1978 : première victoire au Tour d'Espagne et au Tour de France Bernard Hinault, Tour de France 1978 En 1978, Renault achète le fabricant de cycles Gitane. L'équipe Gitane-Campagnolo devient alors Renault-Gitane. Les objectifs de Hinault pour cette saison sont le championnat du monde au Nürburgring et le Tour de France, auquel sa participation reste conditionnée à ses résultats au Tour d'Espagne, qui est son premier grand tour. Il commence la saison avec une deuxième place dans Paris-Nice, à 19 secondes de Gerrie Knetemann, puis remporte le Critérium national et termine onzième du Tour des Flandres. Fin avril, Hinault remporte le prologue de la Vuelta. Il garde le maillot amarillo de leader du classement général durant trois jours, puis le cède au Belge Ferdi Van Den Haute. Il le reprend à la Tossa de Montbui à l'issue de la douzième étape, au parcours montagneux. Il s'impose à nouveau lors des 14e et 18e étapes. La dernière étape, un contre-la-montre, est annulée à cause d'une manifestation. Hinault remporte ainsi ce Tour d'Espagne 1978, son premier grand tour. Après avoir pris part en juin au Tour de Suisse, afin de préparer le Tour de France, il remporte le championnat de France sur route à Sarrebourg en effectuant seul les 55 derniers kilomètres. Hinault prend le départ de son premier Tour de France à Leyde, aux Pays-Bas, avec l'intention de le gagner. Le quintuple vainqueur du Tour de France, Eddy Merckx, vient alors de prendre sa retraite et souhaite faire ses adieux durant cette course. Luis Ocaña, Raymond Poulidor ont mis fin à leur carrière à l'automne précédent. Plusieurs candidats à la victoire n'ont pas été à leur meilleur niveau en début de saison — le tenant du titre Bernard Thévenet, Freddy Maertens, Joop Zoetemelk — de sorte que Hinault apparaît comme un favori. Il considère le Belge Michel Pollentier, vainqueur du Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, comme un de ses principaux adversaires. Il estime qu'« il ne se passera rien d'essentiel avant la première épreuve contre-la-montre » : ainsi après la prise du maillot jaune par leur coéquipier Jacques Bossis, Hinault et les membres de l'équipe Gitane décident de se ménager lors du contre-la-montre par équipes, disputé le lendemain et en prennent la 4e place. Bernard Hinault remporte son premier objectif important de ce Tour, la 8e étape, un contre-la-montre de 59 km disputé en Gironde. Durant les deux étapes pyrénéennes, Hinault parvient à contenir les attaques de ses principaux rivaux, notamment Pollentier et Zoetemelk, et à réduire son retard sur Joseph Bruyère. Lors de la 12e étape, poussé par Gerben Karstens, il se fait porte-parole des coureurs qui, mécontents des horaires de course, ont parcouru la demi étape au ralenti et sont arrivés avec deux heures de retard à Valence-d'Agen. Cette prise de parole lui vaut une étiquette de meneur qui ne lui plaît pas. Après être passé de la deuxième à la troisième place du classement général en finissant quatrième du contre-la-montre du Puy-de-Dôme remporté par Zoetemelk, Hinault gagne au sprint à Saint-Étienne. Le lendemain, Pollentier prend éphémèrement le maillot en s'imposant à l'Alpe d'Huez, devant Kuiper, Hinault et Zoetemelk. Il est cependant exclu du Tour pour avoir tenté de frauder au contrôle antidopage. Hinault passe à la deuxième place du classement général derrière Zoetemelk, avec 14 secondes de retard. Aucun des deux n'attaque dans les Alpes, préférant attendre la vingtième étape disputée contre-la-montre entre Metz et Nancy. Hinault s'y impose et creuse un écart de quatre minutes sur Zoetemelk. À 23 ans, il gagne le premier de ses cinq Tours de France, dès sa première participation, comme Fausto Coppi, Hugo Koblet, Jacques Anquetil et Eddy Merckx En août, il est cinquième du championnat du monde. Malgré un succès au Grand Prix des Nations, il s'incline pour le trophée Challenge Pernod derrière Francesco Moser, vainqueur du Tour de Lombardie. Il est élu « champion des champions français » par le quotidien sportif L'Équipe. 1979 : deuxième victoire au Tour de France Bernard Hinault décide avec Cyrille Guimard de ne pas participer aux Tours d'Italie et d'Espagne en 1979, mais de se rendre au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, puis au Tour de France. En début de saison, il se classe sixième de Paris-Nice, remporté par Joop Zoetemelk, septième de Milan-San Remo, où Roger De Vlaeminck s'impose au sprint. Au Critérium international, il gagne l'étape contre-la-montre et est deuxième du classement général, derrière Zoetemelk. Huitième de la course flamande Gand-Wevelgem, il est ensuite obligé de participer à Paris-Roubaix. Il y prend la onzième place, après une course sans incident et à la fin de laquelle il n'est pas capable de suivre les meilleurs. Deux jours après cette course, il gagne la Flèche wallonne en battant au sprint Giuseppe Saronni et Bengt Johansson. En fin de semaine, il est deuxième de Liège-Bastogne-Liège derrière Dietrich Thurau. En mai, il surclasse ses adversaires au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré : il gagne quatre des neuf étapes, et s'impose au classement général avec plus de dix minutes d'avance sur Henk Lubberding, deuxième. Avant le Tour de France, il aide son coéquipier luxembourgeois Lucien Didier à gagner le Tour de Luxembourg, et participe au championnat de France à Plumelec, où un autre coureur de Renault-Gitane, Roland Berland, obtient son deuxième titre national. Joop Zoetemelk, ici en 1973, principal adversaire de Bernard Hinault lors du Tour de France 1979. Hinault aborde le Tour sûr de lui. Il est quatrième du prologue, puis voit son coéquipier Jean-René Bernaudeau prendre le maillot jaune le lendemain, dans les Pyrénées, à Luchon. La deuxième étape, un contre-la-montre de 24 km entre Luchon et Superbagnères, revient à Hinault, ainsi que le maillot jaune. Il s'impose également le lendemain, lors de l'étape Luchon-Pau. Il préserve sa première place au classement général à l'issue du contre-la-montre par équipes arrivant à Bordeaux avec 12 secondes d'avance sur Zoetemelk, dont l'équipe Miko-Mercier s'est classée quatrième, devant les Renault-Gitane. Le deuxième contre-la-montre par équipes (8e étape), qui arrive au Havre, lui permet d'accroître de nouveau son avance, le Renault terminant cette fois deuxième. Hinault perd cependant le maillot jaune lors de la neuvième étape entre Amiens et Roubaix. Victime de deux crevaisons, il termine avec trois minutes et quarante-cinq secondes sur le vainqueur et laisse la première place à Zoetemelk. Bernard Hinault réduit l'écart qui le sépare de celui-ci durant les jours qui suivent. Il commence par remporter le contre-la-montre de Bruxelles (11e étape), où il reprend 36 secondes, puis obtient des secondes de bonifications lors des sprints intermédiaires de la 14e étape. Le maillot jaune lui revient le lendemain, lors d'un contre-la-montre en côte entre Évian et Avoriaz, où il devance Zoetemelk, deuxième de deux minutes et 37 secondes. Zoetemelk s'impose à l'Alpe d'Huez mais son retard reste de près de deux minutes après le passage des Alpes. Hinault gagne trois des quatre dernières étapes de ce Tour : le contre-la-montre de Dijon, puis à Nogent-sur-Marne, et enfin sur les Champs-Élysées à Paris. Lors de cette dernière étape, il effectue les cinquante derniers kilomètres échappé avec Zoetemelk, qui lui avait dit vouloir tenter une dernière fois de lui reprendre le maillot jaune. Hinault est le premier coureur depuis Romain Maes en 1935, à gagner à la fois le Tour de France et sa dernière étape en ligne. Il a avec son équipe dominé la course : huit étapes remportées par Renault-Gitane, dont sept par Hinault, qui termine aussi premier du classement par points. Renault-Gitane s'impose au classement par équipes au temps et aux points, et Jean-René Bernaudeau, cinquième du classement général, est meilleur jeune. En août, Hinault est 21e du championnat du monde à Fauquemont aux Pays-Bas. Son objectif de fin de saison est de s'adjuger le Super Prestige Pernod, pour lequel son seul adversaire est le vainqueur du Tour d'Italie, Giuseppe Saronni. Sixième du Grand Prix d'Automne, remporté par Zoetemelk, Hinault gagne le Tour de Lombardie après une échappée de 60 km sous la pluie en compagnie de l'Italien Silvano Contini. Il est ainsi lauréat du Super Prestige. Il achève cette saison en ayant gagné 35 courses, dont 23 hors-critériums. Il est récompensé du Mendrisio d'or et est pour la deuxième fois « champion des champions français » de L'Équipe. 1980 : victoire au Tour d'Italie et au championnat du monde En 1980, Bernard Hinault axe sa saison sur le Tour d'Italie, le Tour de France et les championnats du monde. En mars, il abandonne lors de Paris-Nice car il souffre du genou gauche. Au Critérium international, il gagne l'étape contre-la-montre. L'équipe Renault gagne peu depuis le début de l'année, ce qui agace Guimard et ternit ses relations avec les coureurs. Après avoir fait l'impasse sur Milan-San Remo et le Tour des Flandres, il ne termine pas Gand-Wevelgem, souffrant de la cheville et d'un début de bronchite. Au Tour du Tarn, il remporte l'étape contre-la-montre et se classe septième du classement général. Il prend la quatrième place de Paris-Roubaix, en ayant dû poursuivre la tête de la course pendant 70 km. Il est ensuite troisième de la Flèche wallonne, remportée par Giuseppe Saronni. Le 20 avril, la neige commence à tomber dès le départ de Liège-Bastogne-Liège. Sur 174 coureurs, 110 abandonnent durant les deux premières heures. Après le ravitaillement à Vielsalm, Bernard Hinault se place en tête du peloton et le distance. Il passe la côte de Stockeu, puis rattrape le coureur de tête et le lâche. Il effectue seul en échappée les 80 derniers kilomètres. À l'arrivée à Liège, il a plus de 9 minutes d'avance sur Hennie Kuiper, deuxième. Seuls 21 coureurs terminent la course. Cette course, sa « plus belle victoire dans une classique » avec le Tour de Lombardie, lui laisse deux doigts toujours sensibles au froid et à la neige 25 ans plus tard. En mai, Bernard Hinault remporte le Tour de Romandie puis part disputer son premier Tour d'Italie. Le prologue est remporté à Gênes par Francesco Moser, qui garde le maillot rose jusqu'à la cinquième étape. À l'issue de celle-ci, un contre-la-montre, Bernard Hinault s'en empare, avant de le céder deux jours plus tard à Roberto Visentini. À Roccaraso, Hinault gagne la 14e étape, en altitude. Il y bat au sprint Wladimiro Panizza, seul coureur à avoir pu le suivre et qui prend le maillot rose avec une minute d'avance sur Hinault. Lors de la 20e étape, Hinault lâche ses adversaires dans l'ascension du col de Stelvio puis rattrape son coéquipier Jean-René Bernaudeau, échappé, dans la descente. Ils effectuent ensemble les 70 derniers kilomètres, jusqu'à Sondrio où Bernaudeau gagne l'étape et Hinault reprend le maillot rose. Il remporte ce Giro avec plus de cinq et six minutes d'avance sur Wladimiro Panizza et Giovanni Battaglin, deuxième et troisième du classement général. Comme au Tour de France et d'Espagne, il s'impose lors de sa première participation. Il est le deuxième Français au palmarès du Tour d'Italie, après Jacques Anquetil. Moins de trois semaines après ce succès, Hinault se rend à Francfort où démarre le Tour de France. Il y gagne le prologue, puis cède le maillot jaune dès le lendemain à Gerrie Knetemann dont l'équipe, Ti-Raleigh, remporte le contre-la-montre par équipes. C'est ensuite un coéquipier de Hinault, Yvon Bertin, qui prend la première place du classement général, puis Rudy Pevenage qui s'y maintient pendant huit jours. À Spa-Francorchamps, Hinault gagne un contre-la-montre (4e étape), puis s'impose le lendemain à Lille, au terme d'une étape ayant emprunté certains secteurs pavés de Paris-Roubaix. Entre Compiègne et Beauvais, il souffre du genou et son équipe se classe quatrième du contre-la-montre par équipes. La quinzième étape, un contre-la-montre entre Damazan et Laplume, est remportée par Joop Zoetemelk. Hinault, cinquième, reprend le maillot jaune. La douleur au genou persiste cependant. Le lendemain, il décide de se retirer de la course après l'arrivée de l'étape à Pau. Zoetemelk remporte ce Tour de France, après avoir été cinq fois deuxième, dont deux derrière Hinault. En août, Bernard Hinault participe au Tour d'Allemagne, au Tour du Limousin et à la Ronde nivernaise, afin de préparer le championnat du monde sur route. Celui-ci a lieu à Sallanches, en Haute-Savoie. Hinault est le leader de l'équipe de France. Il durcit la course après cent kilomètres. Au dernier des vingt tours de circuit, il n'est plus accompagné que par l'Italien Gianbattista Baronchelli. Il le distance dans la côte de Domancy et remporte ce championnat du monde. Baronchelli arrive une minute plus tard et Juan Fernández complète le podium. La saison de Bernard Hinault s'achève au Critérium des As, à la suite d'une chute. Il est à nouveau lauréat du Super Prestige Pernod, du Mendrisio d'or et « champion des champions français » de L'Équipe. 1981 : troisième victoire au Tour de France L'équipe Renault connaît des changements importants entre les années 1980 et 1981. Plusieurs coureurs la quittent, dont Jean-René Bernaudeau qui rejoint Peugeot, et d'autres y entrent, dont les Américains Greg LeMond et Jonathan Boyer et le Français Marc Madiot. Le programme de Bernard Hinault passe par Paris-Roubaix, le Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, le Tour de France et le championnat du monde. En début de saison, il participe à Tirreno-Adriatico, où il fait partie des 120 coureurs sur 154 partants qui ne terminent pas. Lors de Milan-San Remo, il ne termine pas non plus, après avoir perdu du temps en ayant été pris dans une chute impliquant plusieurs dizaines de coureurs. Il remporte ensuite le Critérium international en gagnant les trois étapes. Il gagne ensuite l'Amstel Gold Race. Au départ de Paris-Roubaix, il fait figure de favori. Il y subit trois chutes, dont une provoquée par un chien. Il arrive dans le groupe de tête au vélodrome de Roubaix. Il y court en tête et n'est pas dépassé. Il gagne Paris-Roubaix avec le maillot de champion du monde, comme Louison Bobet qui le félicite à l'arrivée. Il participe ensuite aux classiques ardennaises, tandis que sa femme vient de mettre au monde leur deuxième fils. Il est 28e de Liège-Bastogne-Liège. Fin mai, au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, il remporte une étape à Lyon, puis le lendemain à Chambéry, où il prend le maillot jaune. Il s'impose encore à Villard-de-Lans et Avignon et gagne ainsi ce Dauphiné en s'adjugeant les quatre dernières étapes. Joaquim Agostinho, deuxième, est à 12 minutes, et Greg LeMond est troisième. Au Tour de France, il remporte le prologue à Nice. Il cède le maillot jaune le lendemain à Gerrie Knetemann, après un contre-la-montre par équipes. Il gagne à Pau le contre-la-montre en côte et prend le maillot jaune, puis le contre-la-montre à Mulhouse où il accroit son avance sur Phil Anderson. Lors de la première étapes des Alpes, il se contente de gérer son avance, sans attaquer. Il s'impose en altitude au Pleynet-Les-Sept-Laux, après avoir attaqué seul à trois kilomètres de l'arrivée. Il gagne le dernier contre-la-montre à Saint-Priest dans le Rhône. Il remporte ce Tour avec une avance importante, et une vitesse moyenne de 38,960 km/h, nouveau record qui sera battu en 1992 par Miguel Indurain. Les championnats du monde sur route ont lieu en Tchécoslovaquie. Hinault se plaint d'être trop marqué par ses adversaires. À 26 km de l'arrivée, il parvient à revenir grâce à son seul effort sur un groupe de 32 coureurs qui comptait 1 minute et 45 secondes d'avance. À l'arrivée, il est battu au sprint par Freddy Maertens et Giuseppe Saronni, satisfait d'avoir « réalisé l'exploit de la journée ». En fin de saison, il est quatrième du Grand Prix des Nations30. Il est lauréat pour la troisième fois du Super Prestige Pernod, pour la quatrième et dernière fois du titre de Champion des champions français de L'Équipe. 1982 : premier doublé Tour d'Italie-Tour de France L'équipe Renault voit l'arrivée de nouveaux jeunes en 1982, dont Laurent Fignon, Vincent Barteau, Charly Bérard. L'objectif de la saison pour Hinault est un doublé Tour de France-Tour d'Italie. En début d'année, il gagne le contre-la-montre en côte du Tour de Corse. Il participe ensuite à Tirreno-Adriatico, puis gagne le Tour d'Armor. Il est neuvième de Paris-Roubaix en avril. En Suisse, il dispute le Grand Prix de Zurich, puis le Tour de Romandie où il se plaint du froid. Il y gagne une étape contre-la-montre à Delémont. Au Tour d'Italie, l'équipe Renault gagne le contre-la-montre par équipes d'ouverture, devant équipe de Francesco Moser. D'abord porté par Hinault, le maillot rose est revêtu ensuite par ses coéquipiers Patrick Bonnet et Laurent Fignon. Hinault le reprend à l'issue de la troisième étape, un contre-la-montre qu'il gagne. Francesco Moser gagne au sprint la septième étape à Damiante et s'empare du maillot rose grâce aux bonifications. Hinault revient à la tête du classement général en gagnant en altitude, à Campitello Matese, sans attaquer mais en usant ses adversaires par une ascension rapide. En attaquant le lendemain, Silvano Contini gagne l'étape et réduit son retard sur Hinault. Il attaque à nouveau lors de la 17e étape, avec ses coéquipiers de l'équipe Bianchi Tommy Prim et Gianbattista Baronchelli, ainsi que Lucien Van Impe et Marco Groppo, gagne l'étape à Boario Terme, et prend la tête du classement général. Le lendemain, Hinault attaque au début de l'ascension finale de l'étape, s'impose seul au Monte Campione, et reprend à Contini le maillot rose perdu la veille. Deuxième de l'avant-dernière étape à Pignerol, où il est battu au sprint par Saronni, et vainqueur de la dernière étape, disputée contre-la-montre, à Turin, Bernard Hinault remporte son deuxième Giro avec plus de deux minutes d'avance sur les deux coureurs de Bianchi Prim et Contini. Troisième du Tour de l'Aude et vainqueur du Tour de Luxembourg, il abandonne lors du championnat de France, à Bailleul. Lorsque le Tour de France démarre de Bâle en Suisse, l'ambiance au sein de l'équipe Renault est tendue, « détestable » pour Bernard Hinault. Celui-ci souhaite faire valoir ses points de vue dans la direction de l'équipe et s'oppose notamment au souhait de Cyrille Guimard de rajeunir l'équipe en se séparant de plusieurs anciens coureurs. Bernard Hinault gagne le prologue du Tour. Le maillot jaune est pris le lendemain par le Belge Ludo Peeters, puis par l'Australien Phil Anderson. Renault est deuxième du contre-la-montre par équipes à Plumelec (9e étape), battu par les Ti Raleigh de Johan van der Velde et Gerrie Knetemann. Celui-ci s'impose au contre-la-montre individuel de Valence-d'Agen (11e étape), devant Hinault. Celui-ci reprend le maillot jaune à cette occasion. Grâce à ses deux victoires lors des étapes contre-la-montre de Martigues et Saint-Priest, à des étapes pyrénéennes et alpestres peu animées, il garde la première place jusqu'à Paris, où il s'impose au sprint sur les Champs-Élysées. Il réalise son premier doublé Tour d'Italie-Tour de France. En septembre, Bernard Hinault abandonne lors du championnat du monde sur route, à Goodwood en Angleterre. À la fin du mois, il remporte le Grand Prix des Nations. À l'issue de cette saison, il est pour la quatrième et dernière fois lauréat du Super Prestige Pernod. 1983 : dernière année chez Renault En début d'année 1983, Bernard Hinault décrit à nouveau une ambiance tendue au sein de l'équipe Renault. Il y constate une séparation entre « jeunes » et « anciens ». Il se trouve insuffisamment impliqué dans la conduite de l'équipe et apprécie de moins en moins la direction de Cyrille Guimard. Ses objectifs pour la saison sont le Tour d'Espagne et le Tour de France. Il reprend la compétition lors de Nice-Alassio, puis participe au Tour de Sardaigne, qu'il ne termine pas. Il se classe 25e de Tirreno-Adriatico puis abandonne lors de Milan-San Remo, tandis que sa relation avec Guimard se dégrade. En avril, il finit cinquième du Tour Midi-Pyrénées en gagnant la dernière étape. Il part ensuite aux États-Unis donner le départ d'étapes du Tour of America, auquel il ne peut pas participer. Il doit en effet se rendre en France pour Paris-Roubaix, course à laquelle il est tenu de participer du fait de son statut de première catégorie. Il ne la termine pas. Dans la semaine qui suit, il gagne le Grand Prix Pino Cerami et la Flèche wallonne. Laurent Fignon (ici en 1993) remporte le Tour de France en 1983 et 1984. Au Tour d'Espagne, son principal rival, Giuseppe Saronni, chute lors du prologue et perd du temps dès le lendemain : il est écarté de la victoire. Dominique Gaigne, coéquipier de Bernard Hinault et vainqueur du prologue, est le leader du classement général durant la première semaine. Les Espagnols Marino Lejarreta, puis Julián Gorospe, Alberto Fernández et Álvaro Pino lui succèdent. Le deuxième secteur de la 15e étape, un contre-la-montre à Valladolid, est remporté par Bernard Hinault. Julian Gorospe reprend le maillot jaune à cette occasion. Deux jours plus tard, il s'impose de nouveau à Ávila et prend la première place du classement général, qu'il ne quitte plus. Cette nouvelle victoire sur un grand tour, la huitième de sa carrière, est selon lui la plus difficile. Dès les derniers jours de cette Vuelta, Bernard Hinault souffre d'une tendinite au genou droit. Il renonce à participer au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré. Il participe au Tour du Luxembourg afin de préparer le Tour de France. Son genou reste toutefois douloureux. Il ne termine pas la compétition et déclare forfait pour le Tour de France. En son absence, Laurent Fignon est désigné leader de l'équipe Renault et remporte la compétition. À l'exception du critérium de Callac fin juillet, Hinault ne court plus durant cette année. Il est opéré en août et reprend le vélo trois semaines plus tard. En négociation avec la régie Renault, il impose un choix entre Cyrille Guimard et lui. Renault préfère poursuivre sa collaboration avec Guimard, Hinault quitte l'équipe. Ses derniers grands succès (1984-1986) 1984 : une nouvelle équipe Bernard Hinault rencontre l'homme d'affaires Bernard Tapie par l'intermédiaire de Jean de Gribaldy, dirigeant d'équipes cyclistes de 1964 à 1986. Celui-ci a collaboré en 1983 avec Tapie, qui a participé au financement de l'équipe Sem-France-Loire via la société La Vie Claire. Bernard Hinault présente son projet de « bâtir une équipe professionnelle selon [ses] idées » à Bernard Tapie. Ce dernier, intéressé, s'engage à ses côtés avec plusieurs entreprises qu'il contrôle dont La Vie claire, qui devient le nom de l'équipe, et Look, marque de ski qui fabriquera des pédales, et Terraillon et Mic-Mac. Philippe Crepel, dirigeant de l'équipe La Redoute de 1979 à 1983, devient manager de l'équipe et Paul Köchli, préparateur physique alors réputé pour ses méthodes modernes, son entraîneur. Il n'y a pas de directeur sportif, car Bernard Tapie n'en veut pas. Parmi les dix-sept coéquipiers de Hinault, quatre viennent de l'équipe Renault : Charly Bérard, Maurice Le Guilloux et Alain Vigneron. La première course de l'équipe, le Tour de Valence, est remportée par l'un de ses membres, Bruno Cornillet, qui commence alors sa carrière. En mars, Hinault est troisième de Paris-Nice, durant lequel il se fracture une côte lors d'une bousculade avec des manifestants qui interrompent la course. Il abandonne Milan-San Remo après une chute, puis n'obtient pas de résultat satisfaisant lors des classiques ardennaises. Les Quatre jours de Dunkerque, en mai, sont sa première victoire de l'année. Au Critérium du Dauphiné libéré, il gagne le classement de la montagne et termine à la deuxième place du classement général, derrière Martín Ramírez, premier vainqueur colombien de cette course. Au Tour de France, les favoris sont Bernard Hinault et les coureurs de Renault : Greg LeMond et Laurent Fignon. Hinault gagne le prologue à Noisy-le-Sec et abandonne le maillot jaune dès le lendemain. Le contre-la-montre par équipes (3e étape) est remporté par l'équipe Renault, La Vie Claire est sixième. Fignon s'impose en contre-la-montre au Mans. Hinault parvient à reprendre 28 secondes entre Nantes et Bordeaux, mais perd ensuite près d'une minute à Guzet-Neige. Il est quatrième du contre-la-montre en côte arrivant à La Ruchère en Chartreuse, nouvelle victoire de Fignon. Malgré plusieurs attaques, Hinault ne parvient pas à lâcher ce dernier à l'Alpe d'Huez et y perd près de trois minutes. Fignon prend le maillot jaune à cette occasion. Il gagne un dernier contre-la-montre et gagne son deuxième Tour de France. Bernard Hinault est deuxième, avec plus de dix minutes de retard. En remportant en fin de saison le Grand Prix des Nations, le Tour de Lombardie, et le Trophée Baracchi avec Francesco Moser, il se sent « redevenu un grand coureur 1985 : deuxième doublé Tour d'Italie-Tour de France Pour l'année 1985, La Vie Claire engage Greg LeMond, en provenance de l'équipe Renault, Niki Rüttimann, Kim Andersen et Steve Bauer. En début de saison, Hinault abandonne au Tour de Valence et lors de Tirreno-Adriatico. De retour au Tour Midi-Pyrénées, il aide LeMond à prendre la troisième place. Il se classe 23e de la Flèche wallonne et 18e de Liège-Bastogne-Liège. En mai, il se rend au Tour d'Italie, avec Greg LeMond. Sixième du prologue, il parvient à la deuxième place du classement général, derrière Roberto Visentini, à l'issue de la quatrième étape à Selva di Val Gardena, tandis que Giuseppe Saronni, précédent maillot rose et un des favoris de la course, perd cinq minutes. Hinault remporte un contre-la-montre (12e étape) à Maddaloni et prend le maillot rose. Avec l'aide de LeMond, il distance Visentini durant les étapes suivantes. Son principal adversaire devient Francesco Moser, qui gagne deux étapes, dont le contre-la-montre final. Ces victoires ne lui permettent pas de rattraper Hinault, qui gagne son troisième Giro. Moser est deuxième, LeMond troisième. Après cette victoire, Bernard Hinault apparaît comme le favori du Tour de France. Le tenant du titre, Laurent Fignon, souffre d'une tendinite et n'y participe pas. Hinault remporte le prologue et abandonne le maillot jaune le lendemain. La victoire de La Vie Claire lors du contre-la-montre par équipes permet à Kim Andersen de prendre maillot jaune le lendemain. Hinault retrouve le maillot jaune à Strasbourg, où il gagne le contre-la-montre individuel avec plus de deux minutes d'avance sur ses principaux rivaux Charly Mottet, Stephen Roche et Greg LeMond, désormais deuxième. Il accroît son avance dans les Alpes. Une chute à l'arrivée à Saint-Étienne lui cause une fracture du nez. En difficulté à Luz-Ardiden, il perd un peu de temps. Voyant Hinault en difficulté, LeMond se plaint de ne pas pouvoir tenter sa chance pour gagner le Tour. Hinault lui promet de l'aider à gagner l'année suivante s'il joue son rôle de coéquipier. Le lendemain, l'étape comprend deux ascensions du col du Tourmalet. Hinault y est à nouveau en difficulté mais garde le maillot jaune. Il remporte son cinquième Tour de France, égalant le record de Jacques Anquetil et Eddy Merckx. Son coéquipier LeMond est deuxième. En août, Bernard Hinault dispute aux États-Unis la Coors Classic, que remporte LeMond. Il prend également part au championnat du monde, où il n'est pas en grande forme. 1986 : dernière saison Bernard Hinault effectue en 1986 sa dernière saison de cycliste professionnel. Il reçoit la Légion d'honneur des mains de François Mitterrand le 21 janvier 1986. Il commence l'année avec des victoires au Trophée Luis Puig et Tour de Valence. Il abandonne lors de Tirreno-Adriatico, Milan-San Remo, et la Semaine catalane, s'y plaignant du mauvais temps. Il aide son coéquipier suisse Niki Rüttimann à s'imposer au classement général du Tour Midi-Pyrénées et y remporte l'étape Tarbes-Pamiers. Lors des classiques ardennaises, il se classe 17e de la Flèche wallonne et ne termine pas Liège-Bastogne-Liège. Il participe ensuite au Clásico RCN, en Colombie et y emporte une étape contre-la-montre, puis dispute le Tour de Suisse. Au départ du Tour de France, à Boulogne-Billancourt, Hinault est susceptible d'être le premier coureur à remporter six Tours de France. Son principal rival est Laurent Fignon. Un autre concurrent est son propre coéquipier Greg LeMond. Troisième du prologue, Hinault finit le lendemain à la cinquième place du contre-la-montre par équipe, remporté par l'équipe Système U de Fignon. Une semaine plus tard, il gagne l'étape contre-la-montre de Nantes, où son coéquipier LeMond est deuxième, à 44 secondes. Hinault s'empare du maillot jaune à Pau, à l'issue de la première étape pyrénéenne. Arrivé avec le vainqueur de l'étape Pedro Delgado, il compte plus de cinq minutes d'avance sur LeMond, deuxième. Tandis que Fignon, fiévreux, ne prend pas le départ le lendemain, Hinault perd une grande partie de son avance à Superbagnères, en étant victime d'une fringale dans l'ascension finale, après avoir attaqué seul dans la descente du col d'Aspin. LeMond gagne l'étape et reproche à Hinault son attaque. Lors de l'étape de Gap, Hinault encore en jaune, est présent dans un groupe d'échappés, puis est repris. Son coéquipier Jean-François Bernard s'impose. Lemond est alors, d'après Hinault, « vert de rage ». Bernard Tapie annonce à la télévision que l'harmonie règne entre les coureurs et que les Alpes décideront du vainqueur. Entre Gap et Serre Chevalier, Hinault souffre du genou et est lâché. Au sommet du Granon, il arrive trois minutes après LeMond, qui prend le maillot jaune. Hinault passe à la troisième place. Le seul adversaire pour la victoire finale est alors le Suisse Urs Zimmermann. Lors de l'étape Briançon-l'Alpe d'Huez, la douleur a disparu. Hinault part seul dans la descente du col du Galibier. LeMond le rejoint plus tard. Ils effectuent ensemble l'ascension du col de la Croix-de-Fer, puis vers l'Alpe d'Huez, où ils passent la ligne main dans la main, Hinault le premier. Zimmermann arrive avec plus de cinq minutes de retard. Hinault remporte une troisième étape durant ce Tour, le contre-la-montre de Saint-Étienne. À Paris, Greg LeMond devient le premier Américain à gagner le Tour de France. Hinault achève son dernier Tour à la deuxième place et remporte le classement de la montagne, ainsi que le classement par équipes avec La Vie Claire. Afin de préparer les championnats du monde, Hinault se rend aux États-Unis, où il est le premier coureur européen à remporter la Coors Classic. Il se classe 59e de son dernier championnat du monde, dans le Colorado. Il remporte sa dernière course à Angers le 19 septembre 1986. Il prend sa retraite sportive le dimanche 9 novembre 1986, lors d'un cyclo-cross organisé à Quessoy, près d'Yffiniac. Caractéristiques Un champion au caractère bien trempé Bernard Hinault est également connu par "ses coups de sang". Ainsi durant sa carrière, il se distingue des autres coureurs par son anticonformisme. En 1977, à la grande colère de Cyrille Guimard, il se fait remarquer en ne participant pas au Tour des Flandres alors qu'il est inscrit au départ de cette course. Dans le Tour 1978, il met pieds à terre avec Freddy Maertens, Pollentier et les autres coureurs à l'arrivée d'une étape à Valence d'Agen pour protester contre la fatigue des transferts et les courtes nuits des coureurs. En 1981, malgré sa victoire à Paris-Roubaix, il dit que cette course - pourtant mythique - « est une belle cochonnerie ». Enfin, à Paris-Nice en 1984, alors qu'il est dans un groupe d'échappés, il est stoppé net par des grévistes. Bousculé violemment, il se fait justice lui-même en tapant du poing l'un des manifestants. Hinault face au dopage Bernard Hinault n'a jamais été contrôlé positif. Cependant en 1982, au Critérium de Callac, il prit position pour un mouvement de protestation contre les contrôles antidopage. En 2009, il déclare « On n'est pas les moutons noirs du sport En 2011 : « Pourquoi on met des contrôles aussi sévères dans notre sport et pas dans les autres ? (…) Le public il s'en fout éperdument53. » Interrogé sur le fait que Laurent Fignon révéla avoir eu recours au dopage54, Hinault rétorque « C'est pas parce que lui l'a fait que les autres l'ont fait55. En 2012, suite à l'annonce de l'éventuelle perte des sept titres du Tour de France de Lance Armstrong, il déclare « Je m’en fous éperdument. C’est son problème pas le mien. C’est un problème qui aurait dû être réglé depuis 10 ou 15 ans et qui ne l’a pas été Retraite sportive Bernard Hinault au village départ de l'étape Monteux - Sorgues du Dauphiné Libéré 2010 Dès le début de sa carrière, Bernard Hinault avait déjà pensé à sa reconversion dans l'agriculture. Son métier de coureur cycliste derrière lui, il exerce la profession d'éleveur à Calorguen dans les Côtes-d'Armor, jusqu'au début des années 2000, non sans difficultés, car comme beaucoup d'éleveurs, il fut touché par les conséquences médiatiques de l'épidémie de la vache folle.[réf. insuffisante] Cependant, Bernard Hinault ne s'est pas coupé totalement du monde cycliste. En 1988, il succède à Jacques Anquetil au poste de sélectionneur de l'équipe de France professionnelle. Il conserve cette fonction jusqu'au Championnat du Monde de 1993. Il exerce également des responsabilités dans la société organisatrice du Tour de France. Enfin, n'ayant plus guère touché son vélo depuis 1986, Bernard Hinault pratique à nouveau son sport favori, seul ou avec des amis, lors de longues sorties dans sa Bretagne natale. Depuis qu'il a pris sa retraite d'agriculteur, il a renoué de façon plus soutenue avec le vélo en participant à des cyclosportives, dont celle qui porte son nom, organisée au mois de juin dans les Côtes-d'Armor. Il est également partenaire de l'enseigne "Vélo Hinault" commercialisant les vélos à son nom.

Ricardo Alonso González (May 9, 1928 – July 3, 1995), also known as Richard Gonzales, and usually as Pancho Gonzales, was an American tennis player. He was the World No. 1 tennis player for an all time record eight years from 1952 to 1960. He won 17 Major singles titles including 15 Pro Slams and 2 Grand Slams. Largely self-taught, Gonzales was a successful amateur player in the late-1940s, twice winning the United States Championships. He is still widely considered to be one of the greatest players in the history of the game. A 1999 Sports Illustrated article about the magazine's 20 "favorite athletes" of the 20th century said about Gonzales (their number 15 pick): "If earth was on the line in a tennis match, the man you want serving to save humankind would be Ricardo Alonso Gonzalez." The American tennis commentator Bud Collins echoed this in an August 2006 article for MSNBC.com: "If I had to choose someone to play for my life, it would be Pancho Gonzales Career Amateur Gonzales was given a 51-cent racquet by his mother when he was 12 years old. He received tennis analysis from his friend, Chuck Pate, but mostly taught himself to play by watching other players on the public courts at nearby Exposition Park in Los Angeles. Once he discovered tennis, he lost interest in school and began a troubled adolescence in which he was occasionally pursued by truant officers and policemen. He was befriended by Frank Poulain, the owner of the tennis shop at Exposition Park, and sometimes slept there. Because of his school attendance and occasional minor brushes with the law, he was ostracized by the overwhelmingly Anglo-Saxon, and predominantly upper-class, tennis establishment of the 1940s. The headquarters for tennis activity was the Los Angeles Tennis Club, which actively trained other top players such as the youthful Jack Kramer. During that time, the head of the Southern California Tennis Association, and the most powerful man in California tennis was Perry T. Jones. Jones was not only the head of California tennis, but much of the country, because the favorable climate gave that region a head start in tennis. He was described as an autocratic leader who embodied much of the exclusionary sensibilities that governed tennis for decades. Although Gonzales was a promising junior, once Jones discovered that the youth was truant from school, Jones banned him from playing tournaments Eventually he was arrested for burglary at age 15 and spent a year in detention. He then joined the Navy just as World War II was ending and served for two years, finally receiving a bad-conduct discharge in 1947. According to his autobiography, Gonzales stood 6'3" (1.91 m) and weighed 183 pounds (83 kg) by the time he was 19 years old. Other sources generally credit him as being an inch or two shorter but in any case he would enjoy a clear advantage in height over a number of his most prominent rivals, particularly Pancho Segura, Ken Rosewall, and Rod Laver, all of whom were at least 5 or 6 inches shorter. Tony Trabert, who was badly beaten by Gonzales on their 101-match tour and who disliked him intensely, nevertheless once told the Los Angeles Times: "Gonzales is the greatest natural athlete tennis has ever known. The way he can move that 6-foot-3-inch frame of his around the court is almost unbelievable. He's just like a big cat... Pancho's reflexes and reactions are God-given talents. He can be moving in one direction and in the split second it takes him to see that the ball is hit to his weak side, he's able to throw his physical mechanism in reverse and get to the ball in time to reach it with his racket." The flamboyant Gussie Moran, who briefly toured with the Gonzales group, said that watching Gonzales was like seeing "a god patrolling his personal heaven." In spite of his lack of playing time while in the Navy, and as a mostly unknown 19-year-old in 1947, Gonzales achieved a national ranking of no. 17 by playing primarily on the West Coast. He did, however, go East that year to play in the United States Championships at Forest Hills. He surprised the British Davis Cup player Derek Barton and then lost a five-set match to third seed Gardnar Mulloy. Following that, in the last major tournament of the year, the Pacific Southwest, played at the Los Angeles Tennis Club, he beat three internationally known names, Jaroslav Drobný, Bob Falkenburg, and Frank Parker, before losing in the semifinals to Ted Schroeder. The following year, Perry T. Jones relented in his opposition to Gonzales and sponsored his trip East to play in the major tournaments. The top-ranked American player, Ted Schroeder, decided at the last moment not to play in the United States Championships and Gonzales was seeded number 8 in the tournament. To the surprise of most observers, he won it fairly easily by a straight-set victory over the South African Eric Sturgess in the finals with his powerful serve-and-volley game. As The New York Times story of that first win began, "The rankest outsider of modern times sits on the tennis throne." His persona at the time was strikingly different from what it would become in future years. American Lawn Tennis wrote that "the crowd cheered a handsome, dark-skinned Mexican-American youngster who smiled boyishly each time he captured a hard-fought point, kissed the ball prayerfully before a crucial serve, and was human enough to show nervousness as he powered his way to the most coveted crown in the world." This was Gonzales's only major tournament victory of the year, but it was enough to let him finish the year ranked as the number one American player. In 1949, Gonzales did badly at Wimbledon, where he was seeded second but lost in the fourth round to Geoff Brown, and was derided for his performance by some of the press. A British sportswriter called him a "cheese champion" and, because of his name, his doubles partner of the time, Frank Parker, began to call him "Gorgonzales", after Gorgonzola, the Italian cheese. This was eventually shortened to "Gorgo", the nickname by which he was later known by his colleagues on the professional tour. (Jack Kramer, in his autobiography, says that it was Jim Burchard, the tennis writer for the New York World-Telegram who first called him a "cheese champ".) When Gonzales returned to the United States Championships in 1949, once again to the surprise of many observers, he repeated his victory of the previous year. Ted Schroeder, the top seed, had beaten Gonzales eight times in nine matches during their careers and was heavily favored. The only time Gonzales had beaten Schroeder, he was playing with a nose that had been broken the day before by his doubles partner's tennis racquet during a misplayed point at the net. In a tremendous final that has been called the 11th greatest match of all time",[8] Gonzales lost a 1-hour and 15-minute first set 16-18 but finally managed to prevail in the 5th set. Once again he finished the year as the number-one ranked U.S. amateur. Gonzales also won both his singles matches in the Davis Cup finals against Australia. Having beaten Schroeder at Forest Hills, he was clearly the best amateur in the world. Bobby Riggs, who had been counting on signing Schroeder to play Kramer on the professional tour, was then forced to reluctantly sign Gonzales instead. Professional Pancho Segura (left) and Pancho Gonzales (right) at the Professional Championship in Noordwijk, Netherlands in August 1961. Gonzales was badly beaten in his first year on the professional tour, 96 matches to 27, by the reigning king of professional tennis, Jack Kramer. During this time, Gonzales's personality apparently changed from that of a friendly, happy-go-lucky youngster to the hard-bitten loner he became known as for the rest of his life. According to Kramer in his 1979 autobiography, "The worst thing that ever happened to Gonzales was winning Forest Hills in 1949... At a time when Gorgo wasn't mature as a player he was pitted against Kramer, an established pro at his peak." Moreover, says Kramer, "Pancho had no idea how to live or take care of himself. He was a hamburger-and-hot-dog guy to start with and had no concept of diet in training... On the court Gorgo would swig Cokes through a match... Also Gorgo was a pretty heavy cigarette smoker. He had terrible sleeping habits made even worse by the reality of a tour." Kramer won 22 of the first 26 matches and 42 of the next 50. Gonzales improved enough to win 15 of the remaining 32 but it was too late. Bobby Riggs, the tour promoter, told Gonzales that he was now "dead meat": Kramer would need a new challenger for the next tour. As compensation, however, Gonzales had made $75,000 in his losing efforts. Kramer also said that "his nature had changed completely. He became difficult and arrogant. Losing had changed him. When he got his next chance, he understood that you either win or you're out of a job." He was now "a loner", said Ted Schroeder, "and always the unhappiest man in town." Semi-retirement From 1951 to 1953, Gonzales was in semi-retirement. He bought the tennis shop at Exposition Park and ran that while playing in short tours and occasional professional tournaments throughout the world. In spite of his infrequent play (because first Riggs, then Kramer, as promoters of the pro tour, didn't want him as the headliner of their tours), he had nevertheless raised his game to a higher level than before and once again was winning most of his matches. Precise records of this time are difficult to locate but Gonzales asserts in his autobiography that after the decisive loss to Kramer in their 1950 tour he then beat his old antagonist 11 times in their next 16 matches. In the southern hemisphere summer of 1950-1951, Gonzales toured Australia and New Zealand with Dinny Pails, Frank Parker, and Don Budge. In December 1950, Pails won the short tour in New Zealand but in January and February 1951 Gonzales won a second and longer tour in Australia. Though Gonzales also won Wembley in 1951 (where Kramer was not entered), it is probable that both Kramer and Segura were marginally better players that year. In 1952, however, Gonzales reached the top level of the pros. In 1952 he entered five tournaments and captured four: the Philadelphia Inquirer Masters tournament, where he beat both Segura and Kramer twice in a double round-robin event ; Scarborough, England where he defeated Budge and Segura; Wembley, England again beating Segura and Kramer; Berlin, Germany where Segura and Budge lost again to him; and he was a finalist in the United States Professional Championships ("U.S. Pro") against Segura. In all, Gonzales beat Segura five matches out of six and Kramer three times in three matches. This was the first year that "Big Pancho" (Gonzales) dominated "Little Pancho" (Segura) in their head-to-head matches, and thereafter his superiority over Segura never wavered throughout their long careers. Although the Professional Lawn Tennis Association issued rankings at the end of 1952 in which they called Segura the world pro no. 1, with Gonzales second, the PLTA rankings were notoriously quirky. The year before, for instance, when Kramer had beaten Segura 64 matches to 28 (or 58-27 according to Kramer) in their championship tour, they had nevertheless ranked Segura as the world no. 1 player. A strong case can therefore be made that Gonzales was actually the world pro no. 1 player for 1952 or, at the very least, shared that position with Segura. At a professional event in 1951, the forehand drives of a number of players were electronically measured. Kramer was particularly known for his fine forehand, but Gonzales was recorded as hitting the fastest one, 112.88 mph, followed by Kramer at 107.8 and Welby Van Horn at 104. Since it was generally assumed at the time that Pancho Segura's two-handed forehand was the hardest in tennis, it is possible that he was not present at that event. In 1953, Gonzales, drawn aside from the big pro tour by Kramer (by now also a promoter), featuring Frank Sedgman, a seven-time Grand Slam singles winner, Pancho Segura, Ken McGregor (the 1952 Australian Championships winner) and Kramer himself, regressed because he had not met a high-level player for 12 months between Wembley 1952 and Wembley 1953. Consequently, in Wembley and two days after in Paris, Gonzales was severely crushed by Sedgman, the future winner of these tournaments. In late 1953, Kramer, then a temporarily retired player (due to his back troubles), signed Gonzales (a seven-year contract) to play in a 1954 USA tour also featuring Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman and Donald Budge (the latter being replaced in March 1954 by Carl Earn for the last weeks of the tour). In the subsequent matches Gonzales beat Segura 30-21 and Sedgman by the same score. After this tour Gonzales won the U.S. Pro where all the best, except Pails, were present. Then the American played in a Far East tour (September–October 1954). He barely won over Segura and Kramer, who made his come-back in singles after a 14-month retirement. Then Gonzales had major success: he swept the Australian Tour in November–December 1954 by beating Sedgman 16-9, McGregor 15-0, and Segura, 4-2. Although Pancho was beaten by the Australian Pro Pails in the last competition of the year, Gonzales had clearly established himself as the top player in the world in 1954. Dominance Gonzales was the dominant player in the men's game for the next 7 years, beating such tennis greats as Sedgman, Tony Trabert, Ken Rosewall, Lew Hoad, Mal Anderson, and Ashley Cooper on a regular basis. Forty years after his matches with Gonzales, Trabert told interviewer Joe McCauley "that Gonzales's serve was the telling factor on their tour — it was so good that it earned him many cheap points. Trabert felt that, while he had the better groundstrokes, he could not match Pancho's big, fluent service." In his professional career, Gonzales won the United States Professional Championship eight times, the Wembley professional title in London four times, and the Tournament of Champions three times, plus beating, in head-to-head pro tours, all of the best amateurs who turned pro, which included every Wimbledon champion for 10 years in a row. During this time Gonzales was known for his fiery will to win, his cannonball serve, and his all-conquering net game, a combination so potent that the rules on the professional tour were briefly changed to prohibit him from advancing to the net immediately after serving. Under the new rules, the returned serve had to bounce before the server could make his own first shot, thereby keeping Gonzales from playing his usual serve-and-volley game. He won even so, and the rules were changed back. So great was his ability to raise his game to the highest possible level, particularly in the fifth set of long matches, Allen Fox has said that he never once saw Gonzales lose service when serving for the set or the match. Trabert and Rosewall Main article: Gonzales–Rosewall rivalry In 1956, Gonzales beat the athletic Tony Trabert by 74-27, a series made more compelling by the fact that the two players disliked each other intensely. At the end of 1956 Kramer signed Ken Rosewall to play another long series against Gonzales. In early 1957 Gonzales flew to Australia for the first 10 matches against Rosewall in his native country. Gonzales had developed a "half-dollar"-size cyst on the palm on his right hand and there was speculation in the newspapers that his tennis career might be over. Kramer's personal physician began to treat it with injections, and it gradually began to shrink. It was still painful, however, when Gonzales beat Rosewall in their initial match and eventually won their brief Australian tour 7 matches to 3, with Rosewall beating Gonzales in a tournament whose results did not count towards the series total. By the time the tour opened in New York in late February, the cyst had shrunk considerably and Gonzales went on to beat Rosewall by a final score of 50 matches to 26. Kramer has written that he was so worried that Rosewall would offer no competition to Gonzales and would thereby destroy the financial success of the tour that, for the only time in his career as a player or promoter, he asked Gonzales while in Australia to "carry" Rosewall in return for having his share of the gross receipts raised from 20 percent to 25 percent. Gonzales reluctantly agreed. After 4 matches, with Gonzales ahead 3 to 1, Gonzales came to Kramer to say that "I can't play when I'm thinking about trying to carry the kid. I can't concentrate. It just bothers me too much." By this time, however, it was apparent that Rosewall would be fully competitive with Gonzales, so Kramer told Gonzales to return to his normal game — and that he could keep his additional 5 percent. Later that year, Gonzales sued in California superior court to have his 7-year contract with Kramer declared invalid. As proof of his claim, Gonzales cited being paid 25 percent of the gate instead of the stipulated 20 percent. Judge Leon T. David found Gonzales's reasoning implausible and ruled in favor of Kramer. Gonzales remained bound to Kramer by contract until 1960." Hoad The most difficult challenge that Gonzales faced during those years came from Lew Hoad, the very powerful young Australian who had won four Grand Slam titles as an amateur. In the 1958 tour, Gonzales and Hoad played head-to-head 87 times. Hoad won 18 of the first 27 matches and it appeared that he was about to displace Gonzales as the best in the world. Gonzales, however, revamped and improved his backhand during the course of those first matches, just as Bill Tilden had to do in 1920 in order to get the better of his rival Bill Johnston and become the best in the world. Gonzales then won 42 of the next 60 matches against Hoad and maintained his superiority by a margin of 51 wins to 36 wins for Hoad. Much of Gonzales's competitive fire during these years derived from the anger he felt at being paid much less than the players he was regularly beating. In 1956, for instance, he was paid $15,000 while his touring opponent, the recently turned professional Tony Trabert, had a contract for $80,000. He had an often bitter adversarial relationship with most of the other players and generally travelled and lived by himself, showing up only in time to play his match, then moving on alone to the next town. Gonzales and Jack Kramer, the long-time promoter of the tour, were also bitter enemies dating to the days when Kramer had first beaten the youthful Gonzales on his initial tour. Now they fought incessantly about money, while Kramer openly rooted for the other players to beat Gonzales. As much as he disliked Gonzales, however, Kramer knew that Gonzales was the star attraction of the touring professionals and that without him there would be no tour at all. Regarding the tour, Kramer writes that "even though Gonzales was usually the top name, he would almost never help promote the Tour. The players could have tolerated his personal disagreeableness, but his refusal to help the group irritated them the most. Frankly, the majority of players disliked Gonzales intensely. Sedgman almost came to blows with Gonzales once. Trabert and Gorgo hated each other. The only player he ever tried to get along with was Lew Hoad." Trabert also told McCauley in their interview that "I appreciated his tennis ability but I never came to respect him as a person. Too often I had witnessed him treat people badly without a cause. He was a loner, sullen most of the time, with a big chip on his shoulder and he rarely associated with us on the road. Instead he'd appear at the appointed hour for his match, then vanish back into the night without saying a word to anyone. We'd all stay around giving autographs to the fans before moving on to the next city. Not Pancho. On court, he was totally professional as well as a fantastic player." In a 2005 interview, Ted Schroeder commented on Gonzales's intense demeanor both on and off the court, "We hardly ever spoke a civil word to one another, yet we were friends. He was a very prideful man, not proud, prideful. When you understood that, you understood him. Life on the tour was not easy. "One night", Gonzales recalled later, "I sprained an ankle badly. The next night in another town I was hurting. I told Jack I couldn't play. He said to me, 'Kid, we always play.' Jack had a doctor shoot me up with novocaine, and we played. That's just the way it was. The size of the crowd didn't matter. They'd paid to see us play." The rigors were not only physical ones. In the 1963 United States Professional Championship, which were held that year at the hallowed Forest Hills courts, Gonzales both dismayed and infuriated his colleagues by being the only player who was paid for his participation. Having learned by bitter experience about the exigencies of the pro tour, Gonzales had demanded, and received, $5,000 in advance for his appearance in the tournament. An out-of-shape, semi-retired Gonzales was beaten in the first round. Ken Rosewall eventually beat Rod Laver in the finals but neither of them collected a penny: the promoter had failed to meet his costs and couldn't pay any of the players. Laver Main article: Gonzales-Laver rivalry Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter, writes that although Laver was "absolutely unbeatable for a year or two late in the 1960s", a "careful comparison" could be made between Laver and the somewhat older Gonzales and that Kramer is "positive that Gonzales could have beaten Laver regularly."[citation needed] Kramer sees as evidence of Gonzales's superiority over Laver the fact that Gonzales defeated Laver in a US$10,000 winner-take-all, five-set match before 15,000 spectators in New York City's Madison Square Garden in January 1970, when Gonzales was 41 years old and Laver was still considered the World No. 1 player. On the other hand, Gonzales was still a top ten player when this match occurred and Laver subsequently won the tournament event played there, beating Gonzales in a straight sets semifinal. During the span of seven years that they faced each other, Laver was 26-32 and Gonzales was 36–42 years old. While the peak of Laver was in the late 60s, the peak of Gonzales was in the middle 50s. Gonzales had a great longevity that made possible this rivalry. However, the overall record could be biased in favor of Laver because of the difference of 10 years between them. Open tennis Most of Gonzales's career as a professional took place before the start of the open era of tennis in April 1968, and he was therefore ineligible to compete at the Grand Slam events between the end of 1949 (when he turned pro) and the start of the open era in April 1968. As has been observed about other great players such as Rod Laver, Gonzales almost certainly would have won a number of additional Grand Slam titles had he been permitted to compete in those tournaments during that 18-year period. Jack Kramer, for instance, has speculated in an article about the theoretical champions of Forest Hills and Wimbledon that Gonzales would have won an additional 11 titles in those two tournaments alone. In May 1968, he was the first professional to lose to an amateur, the British player Mark Cox. The then-24-year-old Cox beat Gonzales at the British Hard Court Championships at Bournemouth, 0-6, 6-2, 4-6, 6-3, 6-3, in two and a quarter hours. The first major open tournament was the 1968 French Open, when Gonzales had just turned 40. In spite of the fact that he had been semi-retired for a number of years and that the tournament was held on slow clay courts that penalize serve-and-volley players, Gonzales beat the 1967 defending champion Roy Emerson in the quarterfinals. He then lost in the semifinals to Rod Laver. He lost in the third round of 1968 Wimbledon but later beat the second-seeded Tony Roche in the fourth round of the 1968 US Open, before losing an epic match to the Netherlands' Tom Okker. One of the greatest matches ever played In 1969, it was Gonzales's turn to prevail in the longest match ever played till that time, one so long and arduous that it resulted in the advent of tie break scoring. As a 41-year-old at Wimbledon, Gonzales met Charlie Pasarell, a Puerto Rican younger than Gonzales by 16 years who revered his opponent. Pasarell won a titanic first set, 24-22, then with daylight fading, the 41-year-old Gonzales argued that the match should be suspended. The referee didn't relent, and thus the petulant Gonzales virtually threw the second set, losing it 6-1. At the break, the referee agreed the players should stop. Gonzales was booed as he walked off Centre Court. The next day, the serves, the volleys and all the prowess that made Gonzales a fiery competitor surfaced with trademark vengeance. Pasarell, seeking to exploit Gonzales's advanced years, tried to aim soft service returns at Gonzales's feet and tire him with frequent lobs. At one changeover Gonzales said, "Charlie, I know what you're doing – and it's not working!"[citation needed] Gonzales rebounded to win three straight sets, 16-14, 6-3, 11-9. In the fifth set, Gonzales saved all seven match points that Pasarell had against him, twice coming back from 0-40 deficits, to walk off the court the eventual winner in a 5-hour, 12-minute epic. The final score was an improbable 22-24, 1–6, 16-14, 6–3, 11-9. Gonzales went on to the fourth round of the championship, where he was beaten in four sets by Arthur Ashe. The match with Pasarell, however, is still remembered as one of the highlights in the history of tennis and has been called one of "The Ten Greatest Matches of the Open Era" in the November/December 2003 issue of TENNIS magazine. But it was not this match alone which gave Gonzales the reputation, among the top players, of being the greatest long-match player in the history of the game. The match would (largely due to the introduction of the tie break) remain the longest in terms of games played until the historic, 11 hours and 183 games long Isner–Mahut match at the 2010 Wimbledon Championships. Final professional years Roy Emerson, the Australian player who won 12 major titles during the 1960s as an amateur when most of the best players in the world were professionals, turned pro in early 1968 at the age of 31, having won the French Championships the year before. Gonzales, at the age of 40, beat Emerson in five sets in the quarter-finals of the 1968 French Open. In the following years, Gonzales beat Emerson another 11 times, apparently losing very few matches to him. In the Champions Classic of 1970 in Miami, Florida, however, Emerson did beat Gonzales in straight sets, 6–2, 6–3, 6–2. Another great Australian player was Ken Rosewall, who won eight major titles during his long career, first as an amateur, then as a professional in the early years of open tennis. Gonzales played 160 matches against Rosewall, winning 101 and losing 59. In late 1969, Gonzales won the Howard Hughes Open in Las Vegas and the Pacific Southwest Open in Los Angeles, beating, among others, John Newcombe, Ken Rosewall, Stan Smith (twice), Cliff Richey, and Arthur Ashe. He was the top American money-winner for 1969 with $46,288. If the touring professionals had been included in the United States rankings, it is likely he would have been ranked number one in the country, just as he had been two decades earlier in 1948 and 1949. Gonzales continued to play in the occasional tournament in his 40s. He could also occasionally beat the clear number-one player in the world, Rod Laver. Their most famous meeting was a $10,000 winner-take-all match before a crowd of 15,000 in Madison Square Garden in February 1970. Coming just after the Australian had completed a calendar-year sweep of the Grand Slams, the 41-year-old Gonzales beat Laver in five sets. He became the oldest player to have ever won a professional tournament, winning the 1972 Des Moines Open, which was part of the USLTA Indoor Circuit, over 24-year-old Georges Goven when he was three months shy of his 44th birthday. In spite of the fact that he was still known as a serve-and-volley player, in 1971, when he was 43 and Jimmy Connors was 19, he beat the great young baseliner by playing him from the baseline at the Pacific Southwest Open. Around this time, Gonzalez relocated to Las Vegas to be the Tennis Director at Caesars Palace, and he hired Chuck Pate, his childhood friend, to run the Pro Shop. Gonzales was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame at Newport, Rhode Island in 1968. Personal and family life González's parents, Manuel Antonio González and Carmen Alire Alonso, migrated from the Mexican state of Chihuahua to the U.S. in the early 1900s. González was born in 1928, the eldest of seven children. Kramer writes that "Gorgo was not the poor Mexican-American that people assumed. He didn't come from a wealthy family, but from a stable middle-class background, probably a lot like mine. He had a great mother and there was always a warm feeling of family loyalty. If anything, he might have been spoiled as a kid. It's a shame he suffered discrimination because of his Mexican heritage". However, according to other sources, Gonzales's father worked as a house-painter and he, along with his six siblings, were raised in a working-class neighborhood. In his autobiography, González states, "We had few luxuries at our house. Food wasn't abundant but it was simple and filling, and we never went hungry. Our clothes were just clothes – inexpensive but clean." González had a long scar across his left cheek that, according to his autobiography, some members of the mass media of the 1940s attributed to his being a Mexican-American pachuco and hence involved in knife fights. This was one more slur that embittered González towards the media in general. The scar was actually the result of a prosaic street accident in 1935 when he was seven years old: pushing a scooter too fast, he ran into a passing car and had his cheek gashed open by its door handle. He spent two weeks in the hospital as a result. Gonzales was referred to as either "Richard" or "Ricardo" by his friends and family. As the child of working-class Hispanic parents, young Richard was well aware of the social prejudices of his day. He reportedly disliked the nickname "Pancho", as it was a common derogatory term used against Mexican Americans at the time. In the Hispanic community, the name "Pancho" is traditionally only given to individuals whose first name is "Francisco", as was the case with Gonzales' tennis rival, Pancho Segura. Although his surname was properly spelled "González", during most of his playing career he was known as "Gonzales". It was only towards the end of his life that the Spanish language spelling began to be used regularly. Kramer wrote that one of Gonzales's wives, Madelyn Darrow, "decided to change his name. Madelyn discovered in the Castilian upper-crust society, the fancy Gonzales families spelled their name with a z at the end to differentiate from the hoi polloi (sic) Gonzales. So it was González for a time, and even now you will occasionally see that spelling pop up. " However, Kramer's theory is unlikely, as González is a far more common spelling of that name in Hispanic communities than the anglicised "Gonzales". In his ghost-written 1959 autobiography, "Gonzales" is used throughout. Gonzales became a television commentator for ABC, a rare presence at tournaments. Described as an adequate but unmotivated commentator, Gonzales would issue thoughtful comments - often magnanimous, occasionally harsh, always candid - on contemporary pros not unlike an old soldier who'd preferred dying in battle than merely fading away.[4] For decades Gonzales had made $75,000 a year from an endorsement contract with Spalding for racquets and balls but was unable to get along with the company personnel. Finally, in 1981, after nearly 30 years, Spalding refused to renew the contract. He had also been the Tennis Director and Tournament Director at Caesars Palace on the Las Vegas Strip for 16 years, another lucrative job. In 1985, he was fired after refusing to give playing lessons to the wife of his boss.[6] As S. L. Price wrote about Gonzales in a 2002 Sports Illustrated article, "There was no more perfect match than Pancho and Vegas: both dark and disreputable, both hard and mean and impossible to ignore." Gonzales married and divorced six times and had eight children: he wed his childhood sweetheart, Henrietta Pedrin, on March 23, 1948; they had three children. He married actress (and Miss Rheingold of 1958) Madelyn Darrow twice; they had three children including twin girls, she currently lives in Fountain Valley. He married his dental hygienist, Betty, in Beverly Hills and had one daughter. His last wife, Rita, is the sister of Andre Agassi. According to Price's article, Rita's father, Mike Agassi, a 1952 Olympian on the Iranian boxing team who had become a successful casino greeter in Las Vegas, hated Gonzales so much that he considered having him killed. Gonzales had coached the young Rita until she had rebelled against her father's 5,000-balls-a-day-regimen and first moved in with, then married, on March 31, 1984, the much older Gonzales. Years before, Mike Agassi, already a tennis fanatic, had once served as a linesman for one of Gonzales's professional matches in Chicago. Gonzales had upbraided Agassi so severely for perceived miscalls that Agassi had walked away and gone to sit in the stands. Kramer says that "Gonzales never seemed to get along with his various wives, although this never stopped him from getting married... Segura once said, 'You know, the nicest thing Gorgo ever says to his wives is "Shut up" ' ". Gonzales died of cancer in Las Vegas on July 3, 1995, in poverty and almost friendless, estranged from his ex-wives and children except for Rita and their son, Skylar, and daughter, Jeanna Lynn. Andre Agassi paid for his funeral. Gonzales played tennis with Robert Redford (the actor). Place among the all-time great tennis players For about 14 years from around 1920 to 1934, Bill Tilden was generally considered the greatest player of all time. From 1934 through 1967, during the Golden Age of Tennis, when Vines, Perry, Budge, Riggs, Kramer, Gonzales, Segura, Sedgman, Trabert, Hoad, Rosewall, and Laver were the top tier players, Gonzales was considered the best of this period. Since 1968, with the first Grand Slam of the Open Era at the French Open, Champions such as Rod Laver, Jimmy Connors, Björn Borg, John McEnroe, Pete Sampras, and Roger Federer have been considered by their contemporaries to be greater players than Tilden or Gonzales. Many people connected with the game, however, consider Gonzales to be the best male player in tennis history, because he was the World No. 1 tennis player for eight years — the status of a few of the earlier years is still unclear. He was possibly No.1 in 1952, but then was probably the World No.1 for seven consecutive years, 1954 through 1960. In the article World number one male tennis player rankings Bill Tilden with Rod Laver are the next closest to Gonzales with seven No.1 ratings, followed by Pete Sampras and Ken Rosewall with six each. Pancho Segura, who played, and frequently beat, all of the great players from the 1930s through the 1960s has said that he believes that Gonzales was the best player of all time. Lew Hoad and Allen Fox agree with this assessment. In a 1972 article about an imaginary tournament among the all-time greats, Gene Scott had the fourth-seeded Gonzales upsetting Bill Tilden in the semi-finals and then using his serve to beat Rod Laver in the finals. Bud Collins, the editor of the massive Total Tennis, The Ultimate Tennis Encyclopedia, is guarded. He writes on page 673 that Gonzales was "probably as good as anyone who ever played the game, if not better." On page 693, however, he writes that Rod Laver would "be known as possibly the greatest player ever." And on page 749 he calls Bill Tilden "perhaps the greatest player of them all." In 2005 a tennis historian who visited the International Tennis Hall of Fame interviewed several great Australian players who had toured against Gonzales. Who, they were asked, was the best player they had ever played against? Mal Anderson named Gonzales, who "was very difficult since if you did get ahead, he had a way to upset you, and he could exploit your weaknesses fast. Though over the hill, he beat Rod [Laver] until Rod lifted his game." He added, "Lew Hoad, in his day was scary, though Gonzales was best day in and day out." Ashley Cooper also named Gonzales, whom "I never beat on the tour. But I did beat him a couple of times on clay where his serve wasn’t as good." Gonzales's frequent opponent Frank Sedgman said, "I played against probably the greatest of all time, Jack Kramer. He could put his serve on a dime and had a great first volley. The second best was Gonzales. I played him a lot — a great competitor — a great athlete." Jack Kramer, on the other hand, who became a world-class player in 1940 and then beat Gonzales badly in the latter's first year as a professional, has stated that he believes that although Gonzales was better than either Laver or Sampras he was not as good as either Ellsworth Vines or Don Budge. Kramer, who had a long and frequently bitter relationship with Gonzales, rates him only as one of the four players who are second to Budge and Vines in his estimation. Kramer also, perhaps surprisingly, writes that Bobby Riggs would have beaten Gonzales on a regular basis. Early in 1986 Inside Tennis, a magazine published in Northern California, devoted parts of four issues to a lengthy article called "Tournament of the Century", an imaginary tournament to determine the greatest of all time. They asked 37 tennis notables such as Kramer, Budge, Perry, and Riggs and observers such as Bud Collins to list the 10 greatest players in order. Twenty-five players in all were named by the 37 experts in their lists of the 10 best. The magazine then ranked them in descending order by total number of points assigned. The top eight players in overall points, with their number of first-place votes, were: Rod Laver , John McEnroe , Don Budge , Jack Kramer , Björn Borg , Pancho Gonzales , Bill Tilden , and Lew Hoad . Gonzales was ranked the sixth-best player, with only Allan Fox casting a vote for him as the greatest of all time. Performance timeline for major tournaments Main article: Pancho Gonzales career statistics As an amateur player, Pancho Gonzales won at least 17 singles titles, including 2 Grand Slam tournaments. As a professional player, he won at least 85 singles titles, including 15 Pro Slam tournaments; at the same time he was banned from competing in the Grand Slam events from 1950 to 1967 due to being a professional player. During this professional period, he won 7 times the World Pro Tour'. The Open Era arrived very late for Gonzales, by which time he was in his forties. Even at this advanced age he was able to win at least 11 singles titles. Overall Gonzales won at least 113 titles in his successful career in a span of 25 years. Performance Timeline: Titles / Played Career W-L Career Win % Grand Slam Tournaments Amateur Professional Open Era 2 / 17 44–15 74.58 1947 1948 1949 1950 - 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 Australian A A A Unable to compete 3R A A A A 0 / 1 2–1 66.67 French A A SF Unable to compete SF A A A A A 0 / 2 9–2 81.82 Wimbledon A A 4R Unable to compete 3R 4R A 2R 2R A 0 / 5 10–5 66.67 U.S. 2R W W Unable to compete QF 4R 3R 3R 1R 1R 2 / 9 23–7 76.67 Pro Slam Tournaments Professional 15 / 31 78–16 82.98 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 French Pro NH F NH SF A A F A A SF A A A 0 / 4 7–4 63.64 Wembley Pro W W W F NH W SF SF A A SF A A SF A A A 4 / 9 22–5 81.48 U.S. Pro A 2nd F W W W W W W W A W A QF F SF A A 8 / 13 31–5 86.11 Tournament of Champions NH W W W F NH 3 / 4 18–1 94.74 Wimbledon Pro NH QF 0 / 1 0–1 0 Total: 17 / 48 122–31 79.74 Major finals Grand Slam tournaments Singles: 2 (2 titles) Outcome Year Championship Surface Opponent Score Winner 1948 US Championships Grass South Africa Eric Sturgess 6–2, 6–3, 14–12 Winner 1949 US Championships Grass United States Ted Schroeder 16–18, 2–6, 6–1, 6–2, 6–4 Pro Slam tournaments Singles: 22 (15 titles, 7 runner-ups) Outcome Year Championship Surface Opponent Score Winner 1950 Wembley Pro Indoor United States Welby Van Horn 6–3, 6–3, 6–2 Winner 1951 Wembley Pro Indoor United States Pancho Segura 6–2, 6–2, 2–6, 6–4 Runner-up 1951 US Pro Grass United States Pancho Segura 0–6, 6–8, 1–6 Winner 1952 Wembley Pro Indoor United States Jack Kramer 3–6, 3–6, 6–2, 6–4, 7–5 Runner-up 1952 US Pro Indoor United States Pancho Segura 6–3, 4–6, 6–3, 4–6, 0–6 Runner-up 1953 Wembley Pro Indoor Australia Frank Sedgman 1–6, 2–6, 2–6 Winner 1953 US Pro Indoor United States Don Budge 4–6, 6–4, 7–5, 6–2 Winner 1954 US Pro Indoor Australia Frank Sedgman 6–3, 9–7, 3–6, 6–2 Winner 1955 US Pro Indoor United States Pancho Segura 21–16, 19–21, 21–8, 20–22, 21–19 Runner-up 1956 French Pro Clay United States Tony Trabert 3–6, 6–4, 7–5, 6–8, 2–6 Winner 1956 Wembley Pro Indoor Australia Frank Sedgman 4–6, 11–9, 11–9, 9–7 Winner 1956 US Pro Indoor United States Pancho Segura 21–15, 13–21, 21–14, 22–20 Winner 1956 Tournament of Champions Indoor Australia Frank Sedgman 9–7, 3–6, 6–1 Winner 1957 US Pro Indoor United States Pancho Segura 6–3, 3–6, 7–5, 6–1 Winner 1957 Tournament of Champions Grass Australia Frank Sedgman 5–7, 7–5, 3–6, 6–3, 6–3 Winner 1958 US Pro Indoor Australia Lew Hoad 3–6, 4–6, 14–12, 6–1, 6–4 Winner 1958 Tournament of Champions Grass Australia Ken Rosewall 19–17, 5–7, 6–4 Winner 1959 US Pro Indoor Australia Lew Hoad 6–4, 6–2, 6–4 Runner-up 1959 Tournament of Champions Grass Australia Lew Hoad 1–6, 7–5, 2–6, 1–6 Runner-up 1961 French Pro Clay Australia Ken Rosewall 6–2, 4–6, 3–6, 6–8 Winner 1961 US Pro Indoor Australia Frank Sedgman 6–3, 7–5 Runner-up 1964 US Pro Grass Australia Rod Laver 6–4, 3–6, 5–7, 4–6 Grand Slam tournament titles Singles US Championships (1948, 1949) Pro Slam tournament titles Singles Wembley Pro (1950, 1951, 1952, 1956) US Pro (1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961) Tournament of Champions (1956, 1957, 1958) Categories: American male tennis players American sportspeople of Mexican descent Deaths from stomach cancer French Championships (tennis) champions People from the Las Vegas Valley Sportspeople from Los Angeles, California International Tennis Hall of Fame inductees Tennis people from California United States National champions (tennis) Wimbledon champions (pre-Open Era) World No. 1 tennis players 1928 births 1995 deaths Grand Slam (tennis) champions in men's singles Grand Slam (tennis) champions in men's doubles From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Syn Jana, chirurga, profesora Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Poznaniu, który zachęcił go do treningów tenisowych. Został zawodnikiem AZS Poznań (od 1975 GKS Olimpii Poznań), zdobył mistrzostwo Polski juniorów oraz mistrzostwo Polski seniorów w hali (1970). Zwrócił na siebie uwagę ówczesnego kapitana związkowego Polskiego Związku Tenisowego Zbigniewa Bełdowskiego, który umożliwił mu rywalizację w imprezach międzynarodowych. 1970 W 1970 roku Fibak, w wieku 18 lat, został mistrzem Polski juniorów i seniorów w hali. Nie uważano go jednak za najlepszego juniora. 1973 Bełdowski wierzył w tego chłopca i wysłał go w 1973 roku na turniej Trofeo Bonfiglio do Mediolanu. Impreza ta rozgrywana była od 1959 roku, a wygrywali ją tacy gracze jak: John Alexander (1969, 1970), Jan Kodes (1967), Adriano Panatta (1971), Corrado Barazzutti (1972), a w późniejszych latach Balazs Taroczy (1975), Tomas Szmid (1976) i Ivan Lendl (1978). Był to turniej z początku uważany za nieoficjalne mistrzostwa Europy dla zawodników poniżej 21 lat, ale następnie startowali tam gracze z innych kontynentów (np. wspomniany John Alexander). Wojciech Fibak pojechał na ten turniej w 1973 roku i wygrał całe zawody, pokonując w finale obrońcę tytułu – Włocha Corrado Barazzuttiego – w pięciu setach (6-0 6-3 1-6 6-8 6-1) 1974 Rok później 22-letni Fibak zaryzykował i rozpoczął granie z najlepszymi. Najpierw w Monachium odpadł w drugiej rundzie (w pierwszej grze pokonał znanego Australijczyka Raya Ruffelsa, w drugiej uległ Erikowi Van Dillenowi). W kwietniu wystąpił w reprezentacji Polski przeciwko ekipie Węgrów. Zapisał na swoim koncie zwycięstwo w singlu i deblu. Przy stanie 2-2 doszło do decydującego spotkania: Fibak - Taroczy. Węgier wygrywał 6-4 4-6 7-5 5-4 i miał serwować. Wskutek zapadających ciemności, mecz przełożono na następny dzień. W poniedziałek Balazs podawał i w momencie, kiedy było już 40-0, Fibak zaczął odrabiać straty i wygrał czwartego seta 7-5 , a piątego 6-4, zaś Polska pokonała Węgrów 3-2. Potem niewiele się Fibakowi udawało, ale spróbował szczęścia i pojechał (ze 130 dolarami w kieszeni) na hiszpańskie tournee do Madrytu i Barcelony. W Madrycie odpadł po drugim pojedynku, zaś w Barcelonie pokonał Arthura Ashe`a oraz znanego Hiszpana Juana Gisberta i przegrał dopiero w ćwierćfinale. Tak zaczęła się wielka kariera polskiego tenisisty – zdobył pierwsze punkty w rankingach ATP i GP i nie musiał występować już w kwalifikacjach imprez tenisowych. Kiedy do Polski nadeszła sensacyjna wiadomość o pokonaniu czarnoskórego Amerykanina, niektórzy wyrażali się lekceważąco: "Wielki mi rzeczy: Ashe to już przebrzmiała pieśń". Tylko, że rok później Ashe wygrał w finale Wimbledonu z samym Jimmym Connorsem i został pierwszą rakietą świata. Fibak po swoim sukcesie stał się uparty, sumienny, prowadził notatki o sposobie gry rywali, ich plusach i minusach. Stwierdził jednak, że najważniejsza jest forma, a zapiski to tylko rzecz pomocnicza. 1975 Sezon '75 rozpoczął pierwszymi poważniejszymi sukcesami jak: ćwierćfinał Hamburga (porażka z Paolo Bertoluccim) czy trzecia runda US Open (przegrana z Haroldem Solomonem 6-4 0-6 6-7). W deblu wiodło mu się jednak zdecydowanie lepiej – wygrał czempionaty w Madrycie, Monachium, Hilversum, Paryżu oraz Devarze. Oprócz tego, zameldował się w finale Hamburga, Barecelony i Indianapolis. W singlu wystartował też w Wimbledonie i Roland Garros, ale w obu tych turniejach odpadł już w pierwszej rudzie. Na koniec sezonu jest 58. tenisistą rankingu ATP (singiel) i 6. GP (debel). 1976 Rok 1976 przyniósł Fibakowi kolejne poważne sukcesy: w singlu doszedł do finału dużego turnieju w Monte Carlo, gdzie w ćwierćfinale pokonał Bjorna Borga (7-6 6-4), w półfinale Karla Meilera, a w finale uległ Guillermo Vilasowi (1-6 1-6 4-6). Tydzień później wygrał już swój pierwszy turniej w karierze – w Sztokholmie (ćwierćfinał 4-6 7-5 7-6 z Vilasem, półfinał 6-4 7-5 z Tomem Okkerem, finał 6-4 7-6 z Ilie Nastasem). Następnie wygrał jeszcz w Bournemouth (w finale pokonał Manuela Orantesa 6-2 7-9 6-2 6-2), Wiedniu (Raul Ramirez pokonany 6-7 6-3 6-4 2-6 6-1), był w finale w Lousville (porażka z Solomonem 2-6 5-7), Indianapolis (przegrana z Connorsem 2-6 4-6), Toronto (ponowie lepszy był Vilas), w półfinale w Londynie, w 1/8 Rolanda Garrosa (porażka z Eddiem Dibbsem 6-7 7-5 3-6 4-6). Zakwalifikował się do turnieju Masters, gdzie w grupie pokonał Manuela Orantesa (7-5 7-6) Dibbsa 6-2 6-4, a przegrał z Tannerem (6-7 3-6). W półfinale ograł Vilasa (6-2 6-2 5-7 3-6 8-6). W finale znów spotkał się z Manuelem Orantesem i prowadził 7-5 2-6 6-0 4-1. Podczas przerw w grze reporter telewizyjny przeprowadził wywiad ze znanym aktorem filmowym Kirkiem Douglasem: "Who do I think will win? Well, Fibak has a terrific lead now and he`s playing so well" ("Kto według mnie wygra? Fibak ma tak wielką przewagę i gra tak dobrze") – zauważył aktor. "But you can never discount Orantes. He never knows he`s beaten!" ("Ale nie wolno nie doceniać Orantesa! On nigdy się nie poddaje!") - dodała pani Douglas. I stało się. Hiszpan przełamał dwukrotnie serwis Polaka, wygrał tiebreaka 7-6(1), a następnie piątego seta łatwo 6-1. Tak więc Fibak przegrał 7-5 2-6 6-0 6-7(1) 1-6. Był to bardzo udany rok dla Polaka, ale miał również kilka słabszych występów jak dotarcie do drugiej rundy Wimbledonu (porażka z Ulrichem Pinner 3-6 8-9 3-6) czy pierwsza w US Open. W deblu zaś wygrał w Monte Carlo (w parze z Meilerem) i dwa razy był w finale, co dało mu udział w turnieju WCT w Kansas City. Awansowali tam do finału i pokonali parę Lutz/Smith (6-3 2-6 3-6 6-3 6-4). 1977 W sezonie '77 Wojtek wygrał w Monterrey (z Vitasem Gerulaitis) i był w finale turnieju w Meksyku. W cyklu GP wygrał w Duesseldorfie (z Raymondem Moorem) oraz był w finale imprez w Kolonii (porażka z Borgiem) i Wiedniu (przegrana z Brianem Gottfried). Doszedł do ćwierćfinału Rolanda Garrosa (porażka z Vilasem 4-6 0-6 4-6) oraz 1/8 finału Wimbledonu (przegrana z Borgiem 5-7 4-6 2-6) i US Open ( porażka z Gottfriedem 7-6 3-6 4-6). Doszedł też do finału singlowego WCT w Dallas, jednak przegrał z Gerulaitisem (6-1 6-3 0-6 2-6 3-6). Zapisał na swoim koncie kolejne sukcesy deblowe: wygrał w South Orange, Sztokholmie, Birmingham, Meksyku, Richmond, Toronto i Rotterdamie. 1978 W roku 1978 wygrał w Kolonii, gdzie w półfinale pokonał Johna McEnroe (5-7 6-1 6-1), a w finale Vijaya Amritraja (6-2 0-1i krecz rywala) i był finalistą imprezy w Hamburgu (porażka z Vilasem 2-6 4-6 2-6). Dotarł też do 1/8 finału Wimbledonu (przegrał z Sandym Mayerem 4-6 2-6 8-6 6-1 5-7) i Rolanda Garrosa (3-6 5-7 1-6 z Dibbsem). Doszedł też do trzeciej rundy Australian Open (porażka z Hankiem Pfisterem 3-6 6-7 1-6) oraz US Open (przegrał z Butchem Waltsem 4-6 5-7). W deblu wygrał aż 9 turniejów: w Toronto, Houston, Hamburgu, Woodlans, Sztokholmie (wszystko z Okkerem), Madrycie (z Kodeszem), Lousville (z Peccim), Bazyleę (z McEnroe) i Australian Open (z Warwickiem). To największy sukces Polaka w turnieju wielkoszlemowym. 1979 Sezon 1979 rozpoczął zwycięstwami w Denver (z Amayą 6-4 6-1) oraz Stuttgarcie (z Vilasem 6-2 6-2 3-6 6-2). Osiągnął też finały w Monachium (przegrał z Orantesem 3-6 2-6 4-6), Wiedniu (porażka ze Stanem Smithem 4-6 0-6 2-6) oraz Kolonii (przegrał z Genem Mayerem 3-6 6-3 1-6). Doszedł do 1/8 finału Rolanda Garrosa (porażka z Dibbsem 6-4 4-6 1-6 6-1 4-6), drugiej rundy US Open (z Yannickem Noahem 4-6 4-6 6-7), odpadł zaś po pierwszej grze na Wimbledonie. Wygrał cztery turnieje deblowe z Okkerem: w Filadelfii, Stuttgarcie, Memphis i Monachium. 1980 Rok 1980 był chyba najlepszym (obok 1976) w karierze Fibaka. Wygrał turnieje w Dayton w Nowym Orleanie (z Brianem Teacher 6-4 7-5) oraz Sao Paulo. Był też ćwierćfinalistą Wimbledonu (przegrał z Brianem Gottfriedem 4-6 6-7 2-6), Rolands Garross (porażka z Gerulaitisem 3-6 7-5 4-6 6-3 3-6) oraz US Open (przegrana z Johanem Kriekiem 6-4 2-6 6-3 1-6 6-7), finalistą imprezy w Stuttgarcie (porażka z Gerulaitisem 2-6 5-7 2-6). W deblu wygrał Birmingham (z Okkerem) i Stuttgart (ze Szmidem). 1981 Sezon 1981 przyniósł Fibakowi zwycięstwo w Gstaad (Noah 6-1 7-6) , finał w Filadelfii (Tanner 2-6 6-7 5-7), półfinał Monterrey , 1/8 finału Roland Garros (Pecci 2-6 3-6 3-6), Wimbledonu (Connors 3-6 2-6 4-6) Ir US Open (Curren 6-7 4-6 6-7). 1982 W 1982 roku wygrał w Paryżu (z Billem Scanlonem 6-2 6-2 6-2), Amsterdamie (z Kevinem Currenem 7-5 3-6 6-4 6-3), Chicago (z Teacherem). Był ćwierćfinalistą w Rzymie (przegrał z Arrayą 6-2 3-6 2-6) oraz finalistą w Neapolu (porażka z Lendlem) i Dortmundu (przegrana z Teacherem). 1983 W 1983 roku osiągnął ostatni finał w karierze – w Bazylei, gdzie spotkał się z Gerulaitisem (6-4 1-6 5-7 5-5 i krecz Wojtka). Był też w ćwierćfinałach: w Detroit, Filadelfii, półfinale w Nancy, ćwierćfinale w Gstaad, Kitzbuhel i półfinale w Monachium. Odpadł po drugiej rundzie Wimbledonu (porażka z Teacherem 6-7 6-2 6-4 5-7 1-6) i pierwszej RG. 1984 Rok później osiągnął: półfinał w Filadelfii (przegrana z McEnroe 2-6 6-7), ćwierćfinały w Gstaad, Wiedniu, Sztokholmie, Memphis i trzecią rundę Rolanda Garrosa (porażka z Taroczym 6-2 6-4 3-6 2-6 4-6). Odpadł po pierwszych bitwach Wimbledonu i US Open. 1985 Rok 1985 przyniósł coraz słabsze starty Fibaka w singlu, ale w deblu wciąż szło mu nie najgorzej - wygrał z Beckerem w Monachium, z Currenem w Brukseli, ze Stanem Mayerem w Kolonii i Wiedniu. W singlu odpadał po pierwszych rundach Wimbledonu (porażka z Mikem Leachem 6-7 4-6 1-6), US Open (przegrana z Henrim Lecontem 4-6 3-6 4-6) i RG (porażka z Jose Lopezem Maeso 0-6 2-6 1-6). Miał kilka lepszych występów takich jak: półfinały w Toronto (przegrana z Andersem Jarrydem 6-4 4-6 3-6) i Bazylei (porażka ze Stefanem Edbergiem 3-6 1-6) i ćwierćfinał w Gstaad (przegrał z Joakimem Nystroemem 6-7 0-6). 1986 W sezonie 1986 Fibak dotarł jedynie do ćwierćfinału turnieju w Rotterdamie. W "Wielkim Szlemie" odpadł w drugiej rundzie Wimbledonu i pierwszej US Open. 1987 Rok 1987 przebiegł bez szczególnych osiągnięć. 1988 W 1988 roku zakończył karierę po starcie w swym ostatnim (i jedynym w 1988) turnieju w Rotterdamie (1/8 finału - przegrał z Milanem Srejberem 2-6 6-4 3-6). Wojciech Fibak to największa gwiazda polskiego tenisa (obok Jadwigi Jędrzejowskiej i Agnieszki Radwańskiej). Wygrał w karierze 16 turniejów ATP i GP oraz osiągnął 18 finałów. W deblu triumfował w 43 turniejach i zapisał na swoim koncie 34 finały.

wind surfing

zawodnik / Windsurfing

Patryk

amator / Kolarstwo

mikołaj gutek

zawodnik / Kolarsteo MTB, Downhill

horse

fan / Jeździectwo

Maciek Moto

były zawodnik / Motocross

Artur Próchniak

były zawodnik / Karting

Serwis samochodów osobowych i dostawczych A-CAR zaprasza do korzystania z profesjonalnych usług. Nasza oferta dotyczy naprawy pojazdów wszelkiego typu. Specjalizujemy się w wykręcaniu zapieczonych świec żarowych, które pękły podczas wykręcania lub doszło do ich trwałego zablokowania w głowicy silnika. Analogicznie pomagamy w wykręceniu wtryskiwaczy, które uległy awarii i zostały w głowicy mimo prób ich demontażu. Posiadamy wieloletnie doświadczenie w naprawie silników diesla oraz benzynowych. Nasza firma od wielu lat zajmuje się naprawą wszelkich układów mechanicznych pojazdów takich jak zawieszenie, hamulce, układ kierowniczy itp. Zakres Usług DIESEL-BENZYNA, PEŁNY ZAKRES USŁUG. częśći do pomp wtryskowych, końcówki wtryskiwaczy i wtryskiwacze, świece żarowe, sondy lambda, klocki hamulcowe, wymiana i regeneracja wtryskiwaczy, wymiana rozrządów, naprawa zawieszeń, odgrzybianie klimatyzacji ozonem silniki, zawieszenia, hamulce, elektryk, diesel serwis (układy paliwowe).

Dominik Troczka

klub / Kolarstwo górskie

Aleksander Wyszyński

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Dawid Buda

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Swoją przygodę z kolarstwem szosowym rozpoczołem w wieku 12 lat .Od razu Mi się to spodobało i zacząłem jeździć w pierwszym klubie kolarskim KTK Kalisz. Po pewnym czasie i początkach kolarskiej przygody, zmieniłem barwy klubowe i zacząłem jeździć w ostrowskiej grupie kolarskiej Ostrowska Kawaleria Kolarska .Po roku jazdy w OKK pojawiła się możliwość pozyskania sponsora i tak powstał Yuneec Sport Team.Drużyna rowerowo rolkowa sponsorowana jest przez Yuneec Polska z Gliwic dystrybutora dronów. Trenujemy i możemy jeździć po całej Polsce na zawody . W ostatnich latach udało się wygrać kilka imprez w kategorii oraz przywieść kilka dobrych lokat. Aktualnie zmiana kategorii jest dużą treningową motywacją ,czas pokaże jak wielka :)

Justyna Rogozinska-Szary

zawodnik / Kolarstwo górskie

Mateusz Manowski

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Krzysztof Lichota

zawodnik / Motocross

Elżbieta Figura

zawodnik / Enduro

Zawodniczka Enduro oraz DH od roku 2015. Mistrzyni Polski W Enduro oraz w Downhillu. Wcześniej przez 8 lat trenowalam XC oraz XCE w sumie posiadam 12 medali Mistrzostw Polski. 4 złote 4srebrne 4 brązowe

karol wawrzyniak

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

jestem zawodnikiem UKS Copernicus Toruń Akademii Michała Kwiatkowskiego

Mateusz Walaszczyk

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Bartłomiej Proć

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Jestem zawodnikiem klubu Agros Zamość uczę się i trenuję w Szkole Mistrzostwa Sportowego w kolarstwie w Świdnicy.

Klaudia Pomorska

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Joanna Kucal

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Witam. Nazywam się Joanna Kucal. Uczę wychowanie fizycznego i od dziecka kocham ruch i aktywność fizyczną. Swoją przygodę z kolarstwem zaczęłam rok temu trafiając przypadkowo na trening kolarski. Zmotywował mnie do pracy i uwierzył we mnie kolega Piotr Górnik. I tak własnie trafiłam do KS IMAGE TEAM STARE MIASTO. Trenuję i ciężko pracuję. Zakochałam się w tym sporcie. Osiągam sukcesy. "Szosa to moja pasja". Nie wyobrażam sobie już życia bez treningu, roweru, szosy.

Jakub Zamroźniak

klub / Kolarstwo

Kolarstwo górskie uprawiam od 10 lat. Reprezentuję klub KCP Elzat Regamet Bieniasz Bike. Aktualnie jestem trzykrotnym Vice Mistrzem Polski.

Zuzanna Olejniczak

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Mam na imię Zuzia Olejniczak. Mam 14 lat. Karierę kolarską zaczęłam ponad 4 lata temu w klubie KKS Gostyń. Trenuje kolarstwo, ponieważ moim zdaniem to najcudowniejszy sport jaki może być na tym świecie.

Jerzy Kukuczka

legenda / Wspinaczka, wspinaczka górska, Alpinizm

Jerzy Kukuczka – polski taternik, alpinista i himalaista, jako drugi człowiek na Ziemi zdobył Koronę Himalajów i Karakorum – wszystkie 14 głównych szczytów o wysokości ponad 8 tysięcy metrów. Uznawany jest za jednego z najwybitniejszych himalaistów XX wieku.

Rafał Szumiec

zawodnik / Kolarstwo ręczne

Jacek Kot

klub / Kolarstwo

Dariusz Beszczyński

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe niepełnosprawnych

Paweł Sojecki

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Dawid Migas

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Siergiej Szypowski

trener / Piłka nożna

Trener bramkarzy

Magdalena Majka

zawodnik / Kolarstwo górskie

Piotrek Rojek

zawodnik / Piłka nożna

Jestem wychowankiem Górnika Wałbrzych . W piłkę gram juz około. 13 lat na pozycji środkowego obrońcy . Mam 190 cm wzrostu . Za sobą mam występy w Dolnoślaskiej Lidze Juniorów , Pucharze Polski na szczeblu Okręgu , grę w 3 lidzę . Rok Temu grałem w II zespole GKS-u Katowice.

Marcin Gawlik

zawodnik / Piłka nożna

Ecomedia

fan / Kolarstwo

Jesteśmy Agencją specjalizującą się w wielkoformatowej reklamie mobilnej. Na Swiecie powstają ruchy społeczne,dążące do usunięcia reklam wielkoformatowych z miast,Kierunek oczywiście słuszny,większość bilbordów zaśmieca nasze ulice,krajobraz,otoczenie.W Polsce niektóre miasta wprowadzają już zakazy.Stworzyliśmy innowacyjny projekt,który umożliwia zaistnienie reklamy wielkoformatowej w tych nowych realiach.O wyższości reklamy mobilnej nad stacjonarną nikogo chyba nie trzeba przekonywać...Problem jest w tym,że nie wszędzie z taką reklamą da się "wjechać"Czy aby napewno?My pojawimy się tam,dokładnie tam,gdzie jest Wasza grupa docelowa,Czy będzie to park,rynek,ścieszka rowerowa,plac zabaw,centrum historyczne,czy galeria handlowa...W naszj galerii firmowej znajdują się zdjęcia z Rynku w Krakowie,na tle Sukiennic oraz z ich wnętrzaRynek w.Kazimierzu Dolnym podczas imprez kulturalnych,potencjalnie niedostępny dla reklam wielkoformatowych,my możemy się zaprezentować z reklamami naszych klientów.Innowacyjny pomysł polegający na wykorzystaniu specjalnych platform reklamowych napędzanych silą mięśni ,pozwala poruszać się i stawać praktycznie wszędzie. Coraz więcej firm stawia na ekologiczny wizerunek,my nie wydzielamy spalin...Pojawienie się naszych platform wywołuje zawsze wielkie zainteresowanie,jest to coś nowego,oryginalnego i eksponujemy się w miejscach dotychczas niedostępnych dla tradycyjnych nośników reklam.Platformy wyposażone są w bardzo dobre nagłośnienie.Nie używamy głośników tubowych,takich jak w przyczepach reklamowych,lecz szerokopasmowych głośników estradowych.Jakość i moc jest rewelacyjna.Nasi rowerzyści podczas akcji reklamowej mogą kolportować materiały reklamowe klientów.Jesteśmy w stanie zorganizować kampanię reklamową w ciągu 24h w dowolnym miejscu w Polsce(druk banerów,ulotek,nagranie spotu audio) ECO-MEDIA Jakub Mozgawa Agencja Reklamowa Rowerowa Ecomedia Mobile Innowacyjne podejście w dotarciu do odbiorców, którzy są znudzeni reklamami wiszącymi w jednym znudzonym już dawno opatrzonym miejscu. Docieramy tam gdzie nikt nie dociera bo nasze rowery dojadą tam gdzie inna forma reklamy nie dotrze.

Zbigniew Stefaniak

zawodnik / Maraton

Biegam bowiem długie dystanse – 10, 15 i 25 km. Biorę często udział w zawodach, organizowanych na terenie całego kraju. Zdobyłem ponad 200 pucharów, medali i dyplomów. To, co robię, jest moim sposobem na życie. Ale to, niestety, kosztuje. Nie mam żadnego sponsora. Od czasu do czasu otrzymam jakieś wsparcie. Byłbym bardzo wdzięczny, jeśli ktoś mógłby mnie wspomóc w nowym sezonie sportowym, abym mógł trenować i startować, a tym samym poznawać kraj. Za dotychczasową życzliwość serdecznie dziękuję. Dolegliwość, na którą choruję, to porażenie mózgowe. Do 9 roku życia w ogóle nie chodziłem. Sport stał się moją pasją. Gdyby nie on, mógłbym się stoczyć na dno. Uważam, że każdy w miarę swych możliwości powinien uprawiać sport, mieć jakiś cel w życiu. Bieganie jest dla mnie najlepszą formą życia.

Krzysztof Kloc

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Kamil Turek

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Witam jestem młodym kolarzem który sciga sie od 7 lat. Pasją zaraził mnie Ojciec. To on pomógł mi osiągnąć wiele sukcesów wskazując mi jak rozgrywać wyścig. Pomoc taty jest potrzebna lecz każda pomoc z twojej strony da mi spokojniejszą głowe o przygotowanie do kolejnych zawodów. Obiecuje dawać z siebie wszystko :)

Adrian Mrówka

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Kolarz KK Tarnovia Tarnowo Podgórne Mistrz Polski na torze U23 Mistrz Polski na torze Elita

Greg Soszynski

zawodnik / Boks

IBF North American Light Heavyweight Title (2012- ) WBC Mediterranean Light Heavyweight Title (2011) Baltic Boxing Union Light Heavyweight Title (2008) Polish International Light Heavyweight Title (2008)

Carl Davis Jr.

zawodnik / Boks

Carl Wayne Davis, Jr. is a heavyweight professional boxer from Chicago, IL. Once a football player for both the American Football League (AFL) and Canadian Football League (CFL), Carl believed that the next stop on his athletic career would be to the National Football League (NFL), but that dream was short lived, due to an ankle injury while playing with the Canadian Football League. Back in Chicago, Carl began practicing martial arts (kung-fu and kick boxing). His instructor entered Carl into the Chicago Golden Gloves to better his fundamentals of kick boxing. In 2000, Carl entered the Chicago Golden Gloves Novice division and became the champion knocking out all four opponents during the first rounds of each fight. In 2002, he returned to the Golden Gloves as a super heavyweight contender. Carl won the open division championship. With his impressive record, the Golden Glove officials elected to have Carl fight on the National Golden Glove team. Carl, along with his national teammates, was invited to fight in England. He stunned the crowd in the packed arena as he defeated Britain’s champion, Brian Robinson. With so many accolades under his belt and making such a strong debut as an amateur fighter, Carl began to pursue interests in boxing full time and professionally. He turned pro in 2003. He showed that same strength as he did as an amateur in the Golden Gloves and defeated his opponent in 38 seconds with a first round knockout. Carl “Iron Fist” Davis was born. With 17 fights under his belt, he is best known for his impeccable knock out capability. In 2010, Carl dropped down to the cruiser weight division. He converted over thirty-five pounds to muscle mass and returned to the ring as a cruiser weight on December 17, 2010. He won the vacant USBO Cruiser weight title with a ten round unanimous decision over former world cruiser weight champion 'King' Arthur Williams. Carl currently works with a Chicago public school assisting emotionally disturbed, learning disabled, behaviorally disordered, and autistic children. His non-profit affiliation is “I AM 4 KIDS” foundation. He is represented and managed by Sassy B. Worldwide Productions, HK28 and 12 Round Boxing Mgmt.

Dominik Jakubowski

klub / Kolarsteo MTB, Downhill

Janusz Rokicki

zawodnik / Lekkoatletyka

Był pracownikiem budowlanym. Gdy miał 18 lat, został pobity i okradziony. Napastnicy pozostawili go na torach kolejowych, jadący po nich pociąg przejechał po jego nogach, co skutkowało koniecznością amputacji obu kończyn dolnych. Początkowo trenował pływanie, został mistrzem Polski na 100 m stylem klasycznym w swojej kategorii. Później trenował podnoszenie ciężarów, po czym zdecydował się na lekkoatletykę, specjalizując się w pchnięciu kulą i rzucie dyskiem. Został zawodnikiem Miejskiego Ośrodka Sportu i Rekreacji w Cieszynie, szkoląc się u Zbigniewa Gryżbonia. Trzykrotnie wywalczył wicemistrzostwo olimpijskie w swojej kategorii w pchnięciu kulą – w Atenach (2004), Londynie (2012) i Rio de Janeiro (2016). Zdobywał także medale mistrzostw świata i Europy w tej konkurencji, a także medale mistrzostw Europy w rzucie dyskiem. W 2015 po raz pierwszy został mistrzem świata w pchnięciu kulą, a w 2016 mistrzem Europy w tej konkurencji. Odznaczony Złotym Krzyżem Zasługi

Karolina Naja

zawodnik / Kajakarstwo

Swoją karierę zawodniczą zaczynała w rodzinnych Tychach, reprezentując w tym czasie MOSM Tychy. Jest zawodniczką AZS AWF Gorzów Wielkopolski. Brązowa medalistka mistrzostw świata w Poznaniu w 2010 roku w konkurencji kajaków w K-4 (razem z Anetą Konieczną, Sandrą Pawełczak i Magdaleną Krukowską) na dystansie 500 m. Rok później, na mistrzostwach świata w Segedynie zdobyła wicemistrzostwo świata w K-2 na dystansie 200 m (razem z Magdaleną Krukowską) oraz brązowy medal w K-1 w sztafecie 4×200 m. Na igrzyskach olimpijskich w Londynie w 2012 roku zdobyła brązowy medal w konkurencji K-2 500 m (razem z Beatą Mikołajczyk). W tym samym roku razem z Mikołajczyk zdobyła złoto w K-2 1000 m, a na 500 m Polki były trzecie podczas mistrzostw Europy w Zagrzebiu. Ponadto na mistrzostwach Europy w Montemor-o-Velho zdobyła trzy medale: złote na 500 i 1000 m (z Mikołajczyk) oraz srebrny na 200 m (z Magdaleną Krukowską). Na mistrzostwach świata w Duisburgu w 2013 roku zdobyła trzy medale: srebrny na 200 m i brązowy na 500 m (z Beatą Mikołajczyk), a także srebrny w sztafecie 4 x 200 m. W 2014 zdobyła 5 medali imprez międzynarodowych. Na Mundialu w Moskwie wywalczyła trzy krążki: złoto w sztafecie 4 x 200 m, srebrny na 500 m w czwórce (z Mikołajczyk, Martą Walczykiewicz oraz Edytą Dzieniszewską) i brązowy także na 500 m w dwójce (z Mikołajczyk). Na Mistrzostwach Europy w Brandenburgu zdobyła dwa srebrne medale na 500 m: w dwójce (z Mikołajczyk) i w czwórce (z Mikołajczyk, Walczykiewicz oraz Eweliną Wojnarowską).

Krzysztof Chmiel

fan / CUSTOM BICYCLES

Zajmuję sie budową nietypowych rowerów i wszelakich maszyn napędzanych siła mięśni.Buduje DRIFT TRAJKI i dam rade wykonać twoje wariackie fantazje związane ze stalowymi patentami :)

Wadim Muraszkiewicz

były zawodnik / Koszykówka

Mayday Team

klub / Kolarstwo

Mayday Team Lublin to klub kolarski zajmujący się szkoleniem młodych zawodników. Naszymi trenerami są : Tomasz Bala, Marcin Makowski,Mateusz Wręga i Michał Ładniak. Klub jest oczywiście otwarty na nowych zawodników, dlatego gorąco zapraszamy młodych rowerzystów w wieku 13-16 lat pragnących zasmakować prawdziwego kolarstwa. Na naszej stronie znajdziecie wyniki wyścigów, zdjęcia, a także najświeższe informacje dotyczące klubu.

Dorota Gruca

trener / Lekkoatletyka

2 Poland National Records in the 5K and 10K, won 15 Poland National titles and 10 Bronze and Silver finishes. In 2004 she won the Gran Marathon Pacifico in Mexico in a time of 2:28:48 – which is still the fastest time on record for women. Dorota qualified for and represented Poland in the European and World Championships including 2005 World Championships Marathon (Helsinki, 2:27:47 PR), and 2008 Beijing Olympics (2:33:32). Dorota has also produced a very successful Masters career in the U.S., running 5K to Marathons since 2010 with 3-Peat wins in Carlsbad 5000 and Bloomsday 12K (2012-2014). She also became a founding board member of Las Cruces Running Club in 2011, was a volunteer Coach for the Las Cruces Running Group and also volunteered as High School Cross Country Coach, while pursing her Education Degree at New Mexico State University. She is currently enrolled at the University of New Mexico. Since moving to Albuquerque with her husband in 2014, Dorota has opened her home to Professional Athletes from Poland providing Sport Camp altitude training, accommodations, and personal coaching. Dorota is a USATF L1 Certified Coach since 2011 and competitive Masters Runner. In 2015 she achieved her dream of running the Boston Marathon where she finished 3rd place Masters and now wants to help other runners achieve their own dreams and goals. In her time off Dorota enjoys exploring New Mexico and traveling.

Mam za sobą ciekawą karierę kadeta i młodzieżowca. Moim sukcesem było zdobycie w 2005 roku tytułu mistrz Polski kadetów wagi średniej. W Starachowicach zdobyłem złoto w rywalizacji najlepszych młodzieżowców kraju, poprawiając wynik z roku 2009, kiedy na zawodach tejże rangi wywalczyłem medal brązowy. Reprezentowałem barwy klubu PKB Poznań przez lata byłem etatowym reprezentantem Polski na międzynarodowych imprezach kadetów i juniorów. W 2006 roku startowałem na mistrzostwach świata i mistrzostwach Europy kadetów a rok później przywdział biało-czerwone barwy na mistrzostwach Unii Europejskiej juniorów. Zdobyte doświadczenie jako zawodnik postanowiłem przekazywać swoją wiedzę i umiejętności jako trener.

John Parker

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

I'm a sportsman. I started my career

Bogumiła Matusiak

legenda / Kolarstwo

Bogumiła Matusiak – najbardziej utytułowana polska kolarka szosowa. Przez większość swojej kariery amatorskiej związana z LKS Pawlikowiczanka. Od 2002 kolarz zawodowy. Od 2007 w zawodowej grupie kolarskiej "Primus". W latach 1990-2009 jej trenerem był Marek Wojna. W swoim dorobku ma ponad 150 wygranych wyścigów w kraju i za granicą oraz 25 tytułów mistrza Polski w kategorii Elite, etapowe zwycięstwo w kobiecym Tour de France (1999).

Justyna Kasperuk

zawodnik / Pływanie

Klaudia Powroznik

zawodnik / Kolarsteo MTB, Downhill

Jakub Kozicki

zawodnik / Kolarstwo szosowe

Łukasz Rykowski

zawodnik / Kolarstwo

Patrycja Bereznowska

zawodnik / Biegi Ultra

Akademia Boksu Roberta Gortata to mój klub, w którym jestem trenerem. Pięciokrotnie wywalczyłem tytuł indywidualnego mistrza Polski (trzykrotnie w kategorii 71 kg i po jednym razie w kategoriach 81 kg i 91 kg), czterokrotnie wywalczyłem indywidualne mistrzostwo Polski (trzy razy w kategorii 71 kg i raz w kategorii 75 kg). Również drużynowo pięciokrotnie zdobywałem mistrzostwo Polski (w latach 1993, 1994 i 1995 w barwach Victorii Jaworzno, w 1999 roku jako zawodnik Halexu Elbląg, a w roku 2000 z KS-em Energetyk Jaworzno). W 1997 zwyciężyłem w Turnieju imienia Feliksa Stamma, zostałem również uznany za najlepszego zawodnika tego turnieju. W tym samym roku zająłem 5. miejsce na mistrzostwach świata w kategorii 71 kg, a w 1998 roku również 5. miejsce w mistrzostwach Europy w tej samej kategorii wagowej. Walczyłem w pięciu klubach: Legii Warszawa, KSZO Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Victorii Jaworzno, Haleksie Elbląg oraz Energetyku Jaworzno. Pierwszą walkę stoczyłem w 1987 roku, a miałem ich w sumie 286; w 230 zwyciężyłem, zremisowałem 10 razy, a 46 razy schodziłem z ringu pokonany (nigdy nie zostałem znokautowany) Kariera zawodowa 10 października 2004 Gortat zadebiutował na ringu zawodowym pokonując po 4 rundach, jednogłośnie na punkty Ukraińca Dmitra Sharipova. 12 marca 2005 stoczył swój drugi pojedynek, w którym w pierwszej rundzie przez techniczny nokaut zwyciężył Słowaka Stefana Stanko. 21 maja 2005 wygrał swoją trzecią walkę na zawodowym ringu; pokonał w 2 rundzie przez nokaut Słowaka Petera Homala. Po tym pojedynku Gortat przerwał swoją karierę na 4 lata. 21 czerwca 2009 Gortat powrócił na ring; wygrał przez TKO w 4 rundzie z Polakiem Dariuszem Ballą. 6 listopada 2009 pokonał Łotysza Zaursa Gadzievsa, którego sekundanci poddali w drugiej rundzie. 21 listopada 2009 wygrał swój szósty pojedynek − z Łotyszem Floriansem Strupitsem. Sekundanci rywala Gortata poddali go w trakcie 1. rundy. 12 grudnia 2009 Gortat po 6-rundowym pojedynku wygrał na punkty z Litwinem Remigijusem Ziausysem; zdobył w ten sposób tymczasowy interkontynentalny pas federacji BBU wagi junior ciężkiej. 16 października 2010 Robert Gortat obronił interkontynentalny pas federacji BBU kategorii junior ciężkiej; pokonał przez techniczny nokaut w 2 rundzie Białorusina Pavela Staravoitaua. Była to dziesiąta i zarazem ostatnia walka w zawodowej karierze Gortata Kariera sędziego 17 czerwca 2011 roku na gali w Rudzie Śląskiej Robert Gortat zadebiutował w roli zarówno sędziego ringowego, jak i punktowego. Pierwszym pojedynkiem prowadzonym przez byłego pięściarza była walka Dariusza Balli z Adrianem Bleszynskim. 25 października 2014 roku na gali w Częstochowie Gortat był rozjemcą w pokazowej, pożegnalnej walce Andrzeja Gołoty z Danellem Nicholsonem